Albert N. Link

Albert N. Link is Professor of economics at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG). He received, with honors, the B.S. degree in mathematics from the University of Richmond in 1971 and the Ph.D. degree in economics from Tulane University in 1976. After receiving the Ph.D., he joined the economics faculty at Auburn University where he remained until 1982 when he joined the economics faculty at UNCG. Professor Link’s research focuses on technology and innovation policy, the economics of R&D, and policy/program evaluation. He is currently the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Technology Transfer. Among his more than 40 books, some of the more recent ones are: Public Goods, Public Gains (Oxford University Press, 2011), Government as Entrepreneur (Oxford University Press, 2009), and Cyber Security: Economic Strategies and Public Policy Alternatives (Edward Elgar, 2008). His other research consists of more than 125 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters. Some of his scholarship has appeared in such journals as the American Economic Review, the Journal of Political Economy, the Review of Economics and Statistics, Economica, and Research Policy. Professor Link is an accomplished statistician/econometrician with significant experience in survey design and implementation. His expertise in statistics and survey design/implementation is evident through his published research as well as through his public and private service. Among his accomplishments in this area, he designed, implemented, and analyzed statistically: the Semiconductor Research Corporation’s (SRC’s) membership survey and subsequent evaluation of its management efficiency, the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s (NIST’s) survey of the Advanced Technology Program’s internal support of NIST’s research laboratories, the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award program’s survey of award recipients and subsequent analysis of the economic returns to the program, and the National Science Foundation sponsored survey and analysis of U.S. university science and technology parks. Professor Link was also a member of the National Research Council’s research team that formulated a survey instrument and subsequently analyzed the survey findings for its evaluation of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Professor Link testified before Congress in April 2011 on the economic benefits associated with the SBIR program. Research related to that testimony is in his most recent book, Employment Growth from Public Support of Innovation in Small Firms (Upjohn Institute, 2012). Among other accomplishments, Professor Link was tapped by the State Department in 2007 to serve as the U.S. Representative to the United Nation’s Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) in Geneva (2007-2012).

There are 58 included publications by Albert N. Link :

TitleDateViewsBrief Description
An Analysis of the Composition of R&D. Spending. 1982 231 Research and development encompasses a myriad of activities. Generally, research is the primary search for technical or scientific advancement, and development is the translation of such advancement into product of process innovations. The National S...
An analysis of policy initiatives to promote strategic research partnerships. 2002 68 Strategic research partnerships (SRPs) have become a salient feature of the US National Innovation System. We provide an overview of SRPs and examine the antecedents and consequences of centerpiece legislation designed to stimulate the formation of S...
Are public sector workers more risk averse than private sector workers? 1981 683 Available evidence suggests that stability of employment is greater in the public sector than in the private sector. The value that individuals place on tbis stability depends on tbe individual's degree of risk aversion. Economic reasoning suggest...
Assessing the impact of organizational practices on the relative productivity of university technology transfer offices: an exploratory study. 2003 1344 We present quantitative and qualitative evidence on the relative productivity of university technology transfer offices (TTOs). Our empirical results suggest that TTO activity is characterized by constant returns to scale and that environmental and i...
Barriers to the diffusion of nanotechnology. 2008 168 This paper provides the first empirical information about barriers related to the diffusion of nanotechnology, a general purpose technology. Our analysis is based on the findings from a state-wide survey of companies in North Carolina, USA. We find t...
Basic Research and Productivity Increase in Manufacturing: Additional Evi¬dence 1981 559 In a recent paper in this Review, Edwin Mansfield illustrated empirically (using a sample of ten petroleum and six chemical firms) that firm rates of productivity change are related to the amount of companyfinanced basic research performed, cert...
Bringing science to market: Commercializing from NIH SBIR awards. 2009 111 We offer empirical information on the correlates of commercialization activity for research projects funded through the US National Institutes of Health's (NIH's) Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) award program. Based on this analysis we sugg...
A Comment on the "Efficient Allocation of Resources in a Regulated and Unionized Monopoly" 1977 80 In the April 1976 issue of this Journal Mirakhor suggested that an efficient allocation of resources is possible for a profit maximizing monopolist operating under regulatory and union constraints. This analysis may be extended by assuming the monopo...
Commercial knowledge transfers from universities to firms: improving the effectiveness of university-industry collaboration. 2003 1470 There has been a rapid rise in commercial knowledge transfers from universities to practitioners or university–industry technology transfer (UITT), through licensing agreements, research joint ventures, and start-ups. The purpose of this study was to...
Declining Productivity Revisited: Secular Trends or Cyclical Losses? 1984 394 Dickens (1982) argued that the productivity slowdown since the mid 1960s is cyclical and not a long-term trend. This letter tests the robustness of Dickens' conclusion, specifically with respect to labor productivity.
Deploying Homeland Security Technology 2003 330 Question: What do the Department of Homeland Security, Intel, and Disney have in common?1 Answer: The success of each depends on how efficiently they implement new technologies. Although the White House and the Congress have responded swif...
An economic evaluation of the Baldrige National Quality Program. 2006 176 All federal programs are accountable for their use of public funds. This paper presents conservative estimates of the net social benefits associated with the Baldrige National Quality Award Program, established within the National Institute of Standa...
The economics of university research parks. 2007 381 In recent years, there has been a substantial increase in public and private investment in university research parks (URPs). URPs are important as an infrastructural mechanism for the transfer of academic research findings, as a source of knowledge s...
The effects of governmental financing on firms' R&D activities: a theoretical and empirical investigation 1990 629 There is a long history of governmental support for private innovative activity in the U.S.A. However, the economic research on this topic has been narrow in focus, emphasizing primarily the relationship between the level of governmental R&D and the ...
An empirical analysis of the propensity of academics to engage in informal university technology transfer. 2007 160 Formal university technology transfer mechanisms, through licensing agreements, research joint ventures, and university-based startups, have attracted considerable attention in the academic literature. Surprisingly, there has been little systematic e...
Employment growth from public support of innovation in small firms 2012 112 Herein, we investigate the impacts of the US publicly funded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program's funding on the overall employment growth of SBIR award-recipient firms. This paper is motivated by the US Congress’ continued emphasis on...
Employment growth from the Small Business Innovation Research program. 2012 135 This paper investigates employment growth in small firms funded by the U.S. Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Using data collected by the National Research Council for each of five federal agencies, our analysis shows that on average...
Entrepreneurship and Human Capital: Evidence of Patenting Activity from the Academic Sector. 2007 181 This paper presents empirical evidence of the relationship between faculty entrepreneurial activity—quantified in terms of the propensity of U.S. university faculty to work directly with industry on research activities that lead to patents—and human ...
Entrepreneurship and innovation: public policy frameworks. 2012 235 The purpose of this paper is to identify and unravel the disparate views toward innovation prevalent within the economic community and to link them to the various public policy approaches. These various schools of thought, or ways of thinking about t...
The exploitation of publicly funded technology. 2013 114 In this paper we focus on technology that resulted from R&D projects funded by US Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II awards. We ask: Is there evidence that strategic commercial agreements allow foreign firms to exploit the technologie...
Federal laboratories as research partners 1999 642 Since the passage of the National Cooperative Research Act (NCRA) in 1984, nearly 600 formal research joint ventures (RJVs) have been filed with the U.S. Attorney General and the Federal Trade Commission. Researchers have documented this trend and ha...
Firm Size and Efficient Entrepreneurial Activity: A Reformulation of the Schumpeter Hypothesis. 1980 307 This paper examines empirically the relationship between innovative activity, as measured by the rate of return to research-anddevelopment expenditures, and firm size using a sample of firms from tbe chemicals and allied products industry (SIC 28)...
Firm size and R&D spending: testing for functional form. 1988 86 One of the most frequently investigated topics in the economics of technological change literature is the relationship between firm size and the corresponding level of R&D spending. Over more than three decades researchers have been examining numerou...
From laboratory to market: on the propensity of young inventors to form a new business 2012 157 Many researchers have studied correlates of business formation. Through the case-based and statistical literature, several broad categories of influence on the entrepreneurial decision to start a new business have been identified. We contribute to th...
Generating science-based growth: an econometric analysis of the impact of organizational incentives on university-industry technology transfer. 2005 374 In recent years, there has been a rapid rise in commercial knowledge transfers from universities to practitioners or university/industry technology transfer (UITT), via licensing agreements, research joint ventures, and startups. In a previous study ...
Government as entrepreneur: Evaluating the commercialization success of SBIR projects. 2010 459 Thinking of government as entrepreneur is a unique lens through which to view a subset of government actions. The lens is not a template for an evaluation of government policy; rather, it is a characterization that underscores the government's purpos...
Historical Perspectives on the Entrepreneur. 2006 1575 This survey establishes a chronological trace of the entrepreneur as treated in economic literature in order to give a more wholesome perspective to contemporary writings and teachings on entrepreneurship. The authors review the historical nature ...
The impact of market structure on wages, fringe benefits, and turnover. 1983 210 This paper examines the relationship between labor compensation and the structure of the product market, which is measured by the industry concentration ratio and by dummy variables for the existence and type of government regulation. Unlike previ...
Information About Information: Public Investments in Information Retrieval Research. 2011 92 Information retrieval (IR) is the science and practice of matching information seekers with the information being sought. Research on IR focuses on improving the effectiveness and efficiency of retrieval techniques and evaluating competing retrieval ...
Intellectual property protection mechanisms in research partnerships. 2006 136 A set of US-based companies is investigated regarding the effectiveness of intellectual property protection mechanisms (IPPMs) in the formation of research partnerships. Patents are the most frequently used IPPM to protect both background and foregro...
Leveraging entrepreneurship through private investments: Does gender matter? 2013 211 Using project data from a random sample of Phase II research awards from the National Institutes of Health SBIR program, we estimate the relative probability that woman-owned firms are able to attract private investments to fund the transition of the...
On the social value of quality: An economic evaluation of the Baldrige Performance Excellence Program. 2012 15 This study estimates the net social value of the Baldrige Performance Excellence Program. It focuses specifically on a survey population of 273 applicants for the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award since 2006. Using a counterfactual evaluation m...
Opening the ivory tower's door: An analysis of the determinants of the formation of U.S. university spin-off companies. 2005 334 This paper presents findings from an analysis of the determinants of the formation of university spin-off companies within the university's research park. We find that university spin-off companies are a greater proportion of the companies in older p...
Private Investor Participation and Commercialization Rates for Government-Sponsored Research and Development: Would a Prediction Market Improve the Performance of the SBIR Programme? 2009 98 An objective of the US Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) programme is the private sector commercialization of funded R&D projects. However, our estimate of the actual or expected probability of commercialization of such R&D is fairly low; our...
Privatization, bureaucracy, and risk aversion 1993 576 The role of governmental risk aversion in the decision to privatize the production of goods and services has not been examined closely. Using a model of a risk-averse, single-service Niskanen bureaucrat, we determine the conditions under which a bure...
Productivity growth, environmental regulations and the composition of R&D. 1982 104 The average annual rate of productivity growth in the United States has fallen since the mid-1960s. One factor often cited for this trend is the slowdown in the level of R&D spending. In considering this factor, many researchers have examined the c...
Public gains from entrepreneurial research: Inferences about the economic value of public support of the Small Business Innovation Research program. 2012 98 This article presents a systematic analysis of the net economic benefits associated with the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. We offer a derivation of producer and consumer surplus to estimate economic benefits. Fundamental to the i...
Public knowledge, private knowledge: the intellectual capital of entrepreneurs. 2011 130 This paper focuses on the innovative actions of entrepreneurs, namely their tendency to reveal the intellectual capital that results from their research efforts either in the form of public knowledge (publications) or private knowledge (patents). Usi...
Public science and public innovation: Assessing the relationship between patenting at U.S. National Laboratories and the Bayh-Dole Act. 2011 176 Most studies of the effects of the Bayh-Dole Act have focused on universities. In contrast, we analyze patenting activity at two prominent national laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories and the National Institute of Standards and Technology befo...
Public/private partnerships: stimulating competition in a dynamic market. 2001 70 This paper sets forth a public/private partnership competition policy that mitigates the appropriability problems associated with innovation that occur in a dynamic market when competitive pressures are present. We illustrate the applicability of our...
Public/private technology partnerships: evaluating SBIR-supported research. 2002 118 This paper evaluates public support of private-sector research and development (R&D) through the Department of Defense’s (DoD’s), Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. Based on alternative evaluation methods applicable to survey data and...
Rates of Induced Technology from Investments in Research and Development 1978 94 Research and development encompasses a myriad of activities. Generally, "research" is defined as the primary search for technical or scientific advancement, and "development" refers to the translation of these advancements into product or process inn...
Research partnerships. 2000 190 This paper synthesizes the academic, professional, and policy literature on research partnerships with an eye toward technology policy. Based on available theory and empirical investigations, there are a variety of important reasons why firms partici...
The Small Business Innovation Research Program 2012 128 The Small Business Innovation Development Act of 1982 created the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program to stimulate technological innovation, to use small businesses of 500 or fewer employees to meet federal R&D needs, to foster and enco...
Tax policies affecting R&D: an international comparison 1993 837 As more and more emphasis is being given to the role of government in supporting innovation-related activity, a clearer understanding of the historical intent of R&D-related tax policies (by far the most common mechanism for support of R&D) and of th...
Technology infrastructure: Introduction to the special issue. 2008 102 Technology infrastructure supports the design, deployment and use of both individual technology-based components and the systems of such components that form the knowledge-based economy. As such, it plays a central role in the innovation process and ...
A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of the Decision to Locate on a University Research Park 2008 601 University research parks constitute a potentially important mechanism for university technology transfer and regional economic development. Unfortunately, there is little theoretical and empirical evidence on the firm-level choice decision to locate...
A time allocation study of university faculty. 2008 369 Many previous time allocation studies treat work as a single activity and examine trade-offs between work and other activities. This paper investigates the at-work allocation of time among teaching, research, grant writing and service by science and ...
Toward a model of the effective transfer of scientific knowledge from academicians to practitioners: qualitative evidence from the commercialization of university technologies. 2004 1271 A new organizational entity has emerged at research universities: the technology transfer office (TTO). TTOs were established to facilitate commercial knowledge transfers from universities to practitioners or university/industry technology transfer (...
Transmission of Risk-Averse Behavior in Small Firms 2004 408 Small-sized firms are typically more entrepreneurial and engage in more innovation and risk-taking behavior. For that reason they are considered the engines of future economic growth. One policy for stimulating such activity is to provide government ...
U.S. Research Joint Ventures with International Partners 2013 17 In the United States, as in most industrialized nations, aggregate technological advancement declined during the 1970s and early 1980s. The U.S. Congress was quick to respond to this down turn by passing a number of technology- and innovation-related...
U.S. science parks: the diffusion of an innovation and its effects on the academic missions of universities. 2003 402 The paper is an exploratory study of science parks in the United States. It models the history of science parks as the diffusion of an innovation that was adopted at a rapid and increasing rate in the early 1980s, and since then at a decreased rate. ...
Unions and technology adoption: A qualitative analysis of the use of real-time control systems in U.S. coal firms. 2002 184 In recent decades, many manufacturing firms have adopted new technologies, such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), computer numerical control (CNC), and just-in-time production (JIT) systems. Implementation of these d...
Universities as partners in U.S. research joint ventures. 2005 250 This paper investigates the conditions when a research joint venture (RJV) will involve a university as a research partner. We hypothesize that larger RJVs are more likely to invite a university to join the venture as a research partner than smaller ...
Universities as research partners in publicly supported entrepreneurial firms. 2012 152 Partnerships between universities and industrial firms can play a key role in enhancing competitiveness because they provide a conduit for the spillover of knowledge from the academic organization where knowledge is created to the firm where it is tr...
Universities as Research Partners. 2003 71 Universities are a key institution in the U.S. innovation system, and an important aspect of their involvement is the role they play in public-private partnerships. This note offers insights into the performance of industry-university research par...
Why are governmental R&D and private R&D complements? (research and development). 1991 907 It is well known that governmental R&D and private R&D have complementary relationship. However, no previous study has provided an explanation for why that complementary relationship exists. This paper argues that infratechnology is the critical link...
Worker response to a menu of implicit contracts. 1982 108 The literature on implicit contracts between workers and firms suggests that workers face a variety of such contracts, allowing each to choose the optimal trade-off between earnings level and earnings stability. This study tests some implications ...