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Douglas Wahlsten

There are 106 included publications by Douglas Wahlsten :

TitleDateViewsBrief Description
Agenesis of the corpus callosum and voluntary wheel running in mice. 1996 401 Humans born without a corpus callosum (CC) are often comparatively slow and clumsy on tasks requiring bilateral motor coordination. In this study, we attempted to identify correlates of CC agenesis in mice by examining an ecologically valid motor beh...
Airbrushing Heritability 2003 392 Genetics and Human Behaviour: The Ethical Context by the Nuffield Council on Bioethics (2002) is the outcome of an extensive review of quantitative genetic studies conducted by a working party of 13 scholars in the United Kingdom that was base...
An analysis of the genetics of alcohol intoxication in inbred mice 2005 345 We compared the behaviors of eight inbred mouse strains across 18 variables, using 11 behavioral assays, and gave ethanol (EtOH) as an intoxicant. Genetic influences on behavior and sensitivity to EtOH were pronounced, but strain sensitivities were g...
Analysis of Variance in the Service of Interactionism 2000 248 Vreeke (this issue) asserts: "If you hold that reality is interactive, but use methods which presuppose the separateness of genes and the environment, your are stuck with a problem of interpretation." A similar point was made recently by a colleague ...
Assessment of genetic susceptibility to ethanol intoxication in mice 2003 152 Increased use of gene manipulation in mice (e.g., targeted or random mutagenesis) has been accompanied by increased reliance on a very few rapid and simple behavioral assays, each of which aspires to model a human behavioral domain. Yet, each assay c...
Axonal Guidance During Development of the Great Cerebral Commissures: Descriptive and Experimental Studies, in Vivo, on the Role of Preformed Glial Pathways 1982 849 Do structures exist within the embryonic central nervous system that guide axons across the midline during development of the great cerebral commissures (corpus callosum, anterior commissure)? With the use of serial section and reconstructive compute...
Behavioural testing of standard inbred and 5HT1B knockout mice: implications of absent corpus callosum 2001 315 Rapid advances in biotechnology have created new demands for tests of mouse behaviour having both high reliability and high throughput for mass screening. This paper discusses several statistical and psychological factors pertinent to replication of ...
Betwixt Gene and Behavior (Commentary on the Paper by J. D. Sinclair) 1992 159 A gene is a macromolecule which codes for the structure of a protein. Lehninger (1967) points out, "The ascent from simple self-assembling systems such as oligomeric proteins and enzyme complexes to the level of supramolecular organization of subcell...
Bias and sampling error in sex difference research 1988 188 Benbow argues that, because she can find no environmental differences to explain a small sex difference in Scholastic Aptitude Test-Mathematics (SAT-M) scores in a highly select sample of volunteers from the top 3% of seventh-grade children, we shoul...
Calibration of computer-monitored running wheels with adjustable drag 1997 275 The design of a rodent running wheel with adjustable drag and ability to measure accurately the direction as well as the speed of running is described. A computer program in the C language enables a single microcomputer to monitor several wheels simu...
Calibration of Rotational Acceleration for the Rotarod Test of Rodent Motor Coordination 2009 1915 The latency of mice and rats to fall from the accelerating rotarod can differ markedly between laboratories using the same brand of rod as well as between studies using different kinds of rods. These discrepancies can arise from different rod diamete...
Carbon dioxide-induced amnesia in the cockroach Periplaneta americana 1968 610 Cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) learned to passively avoid electric shock in a two-compartment box after a single training trial. However, Ss exposed to CO2 gas immediately after the training trial failed to show retention of the previous experie...
Contributions of the Genes Albinism (c) and Retinal Degeneration (rd) to a Strain-by-Training Procedure Interaction in Avoidance Learning 1973 230 The effects of c and rd on jump-out and one-way avoidance learning were examined using both inbred strains and test crosses. Neither gene was found to retard either escape or avoidance performance in the jump-out task, although rd led t...
Cortical Axon Trajectories and Growth Cone Morphologies in Fetuses of Acallosal Mouse Strains 1993 302 Hereditary absence of the corpus callosum (CC) provides an ideal experiment of nature for exploring mechanisms of axon guidance. In this study the prenatal development of CC axons in the acallosal mouse strains BALB/cWah 1 and 129/ ReJ or J was compa...
Defects of the Fetal Forebrain in Mice With Hereditary Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum 1987 240 Inbred BALB/c mice are genetically the same, yet less than half of adults show absent or small corpus callosum. Is this because only a minority has prenatal defects of the sling at the telencephalic midline, or do most fetuses have a defective sling ...
Deficiency of Corpus Callosum Varies with Strain and Supplier of the Mice 1982 555 Six inbred strains of adult mice either obtained from commercial suppliers or bred in the author's laboratory at Waterloo were assessed for size of body, brain and corpus callosum (CC) at a wide range of ages. Because almost all measures varied signi...
Deficient corpus callosum in hybrids between ddN and three other abnormal mouse strains 1992 175 The mouse strain ddN from Japan was crossed with three other inbred strains prone to absence of the corpus callosum (BALB/cWahl, I/LnJ and 129/ReJ), and at least one brain with abnormally small corpus callosum was observed in offspring from each F
A developmental time scale for postnatal changes in brain and behavior of B6D2F2 mice. 1974 338 A time scale for postnatal development was devised by testing separate litters of mice on 10 consecutive days (27.0-36.0 gestation days, or 8.5-17.5 days after birth) for behavioral abilities, body weight, brain weight, myelination of 80 fiber tracts...
Different Data from Different Labs: Lessons from Studies of Gene–Environment Interaction 2003 198 It is sometimes supposed that standardizing tests of mouse behavior will ensure similar results in different laboratories. We evaluated this supposition by conducting behavioral tests with identical apparatus and test protocols in independent laborat...
Different Rankings of Inbred Mouse Strains on the Morris Maze and a Refined 4-Arm Water Escape Task 2005 580 The submerged platform or Morris water escape task is widely used to study genetic variation in spatial learning and memory, but interpretation is sometimes difficult because of wall hugging, jumping off the platform, floating or non-spatial swim str...
Digit ratio (2D:4D) and behavioral differences between inbred mouse strains. 2005 209 Digit ratio (2D:4D) is a trait, which is sexually differentiated in a variety of species. In humans, males typically have shorter second digits (2Ds) (index fingers) compared to fourth digits (4Ds) (ring fingers) whereas females’ fingers are more equ...
Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Differences between 20 Strains of Inbred Mice 2009 244 The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is sexually differentiated in a variety of species, including humans, rats, birds, and lizards. In humans, this ratio tends to be lower in males than in females. Lower digit ratios are believed to indicate in...
Each behavior is a product of heredity and experience 1984 240 In "Phylogeny" Skinner makes two points quite effectively. First, he argues that it is not possible to know either the phylogenetic or the ontogenetic origin of a behavior from knowledge of its apparent purposiveness or adaptiveness, Second, he maint...
Effect sizes and meta-analysis indicate no sex dimorphism in the human or rodent corpus callosum 1998 175 Sex dimorphism occurs when group means differ by four or more standard deviations. However, the average size of the corpus callosum is greater in males by about one standard deviation in rats, 0.2 standard deviation in humans, and virtually zero in m...
Effects of d-Amphetamine and Scopolamine on Activity Before and After Shock in Three Mouse Strains 1975 237 In three experiments the following results were obtained: (a) Activity was greater both prior to and following exposure to shock among C57BL/6J mice than in DBA/2J mice, which in turn was greater than that of A/J mice. (b) Scopolamine hydrobromide in...
Effects of Genetic and Procedural Variation on Measurement of Alcohol Sensitivity in Mouse Inbred Strains 2006 234 Mice from eight inbred strains were studied for their acute sensitivity to ethanol as indexed by the degree of hypothermia (HT), indexed as the reduction from pre-injection baseline of their body temperature. Two weeks later, mice were tested for the...
Effects of a Hybrid Maternal Environment on Brain Growth and Corpus Callosum Defects of Inbred BALB/c Mice: A Study Using Ovarian Grafting 1988 179 The corpus callosum of many but not all BALB/c mice is either abnormally small or absent. The basis for the defect is hereditary, but the proportion of mice expressing the anomaly can be modified by changing the early environment. The present study i...
The Effects of Intrauterine Position on the Degree of Corpus Callosum Deficiency in Two Substrains of BALB/c Mice 1991 212 Measures of several intrauterine position variables as well as an index of abnormality of fetal commissure development (z score) were obtained for fetuses of two substrains of BALB mice, BALB/ cWahl and BALB/cWah2, known to differ as adults in the pr...
Evaluating genetic models of cognitive evolution and behaviour 1996 224 Cognitive evolution can be studied at several different levels, ranging from complex societies of interdependent persons to the DNA molecules coding for enzymes that synthesize neurotransmitter molecules. Genetic models of cognitive evolution can be ...
Facilitation or bar-press avoidance by handling during the intertrial interval. 1968 223 Experiment 1 demonstrated that handling rats prior to the start of a trial greatly facilitated bar-press avoidance learning. Although Ss which were also allowed to escape the training chamber following a bar press performed well, they were not signif...
Genetic and developmental defects of the mouse corpus callosum 1989 347 Among adult BALB mice fewer than 20% usually have a small or absent corpus callosum (CC) and inheritance is polygenic. In the fetus at the time when the CC normally forms, however, almost all BALB mice show a distinct bulge in the interhemispheric fi...
Genetic Experiments with Animal Learning: A Critical Review 1972 837 The basic patterns of inheritance of learning ability in animals have been delineated. Summaries of strain differences in learning rate, responses to selective breeding for learning, heritabilities of learning phenotypes, and heterosis and overdomina...
The genetic kaleidoscope of vision 1995 164 Site-specific phenotypic effects of the 73 known alleles in the rhodopsin gene that cause retinal degeneration are difficult to interpret because most alleles are documented in only one case or one family, which means variation in effects could actua...
Genetic Variation in the Development of Mouse Brain and Behavior: Evidence from the Middle Postnatal Period 1975 277 Six inbred strains and 3 F2 hybrid crosses of mice were assessed for developmental status at 32 days after conception (about 13 days after birth). Phenotypes measured included body weight, brain weight, maturity of 14 reflexive behaviors, ...
Genetics of Mouse Behavior: Interactions with Laboratory Environment 1999 524 Strains of mice that show characteristic patterns of behavior are critical for research in neurobehavioral genetics. Possible confounding influences of the laboratory environment were studied in several inbred strains and one null mutant by simultane...
Goals and methods: The study of development versus partitioning of variance 1990 519 The central thesis of the target article is that the statistical power of two-way analysis of variance to detect certain kinds of interaction or nonadditivity is substantially less than the power to detect main effects in the same circumstances.
Growth of the Mouse Corpus Callosum 1984 344 Brains of BALB/cCF inbred mice were examined at 15 ages ranging from 16.5 to 50.5 days from conception and cross-sectional areas of major forebrain fibre tracts at the midsagittal plane were measured. The anterior commissure appeared prior to the cor...
Heritable aspects of anomalous myelinated fibre tracts in the forebrain of the laboratory mouse. 1974 339 Serial coronal or sagittal sections were stained for myelin and examined in 6 inbred, 4 hybrid, and 2 outbred mouse strains, Absent corpus callosum was seen only in BALB/cJ as reported by Wimer, but a wide range of the size of corpus callosum was als...
Hybrid vigour and maternal environment in mice. I. Body and brain growth 1991 181 Ovarian grafting and surrogate fostering were used to manipulate the pre- and postnatal maternal environments, respectively, in order that the inbred mouse strains BALB/c and C57BL/6J and their reciprocal F1 hybrids experienced either an inbred or an...
Hybrid vigour and maternal environment in mice. II. Water escape learning, open-field activity and spatial memory 1991 197 A combination of ovarian grafting and fostering was used to study the effects of pre- and postnatal maternal factors on adult behaviour. Inbred mice (BALB/c and C57BL/6) and F1 hybrids were compared to assess differential sensitivity to ea...
Hybrid vigour and maternal environment in mice. III. Hippocampal mossy fibres and behaviour 1991 208 Inbred BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice as well as their F1 hybrids were reared in either an inbred or hybrid maternal environment prenatally and/or postnatally, and were later tested for several behaviours prior to histological study of the brain ...
Impaired fear memory, altered object memory and modified hippocampal synaptic plasticity in split-brain mice 2008 380 The hippocampus is critical for memory formation. However, the contributions of the hippocampal commissure (HC) and the corpus callosum (CC) are less clear. To elucidate the role of the forebrain commissures in learning and memory, we performed a beh...
Implications of Genetic Variation in Mouse Brain Structure for Electrode Placement by Stereotaxic Surgery 1975 767 The spatial locations of several forebrain and midbrain fibre tracts have been compared across seven commonly used inbred, hybrid and outbred mouse strains using a series of electrolytic lesions of known positions with respect to a stereotaxic instru...
Improvement of shuttle avoidance by handling during the intertrial interval. 1969 478 Rats handled between trials during shuttle avoidance training were superior to those not handled on several measures of avoidance learning; handled rats were nonetheless inferior to those receiving one-way training. A second experiment clearly demons...
In search of a better mouse test 2003 286 To elucidate pathways from specific genes to complex behaviors, assays of mouse behavior need to be valid, reliable and replicable across laboratories. Behavioral assays are proving to be as complex as the intricate cellular and molecular pathways th...
Increased Axon Number in the Anterior Commissure of Mice Lacking a Corpus Callosum 1997 612 Relatively few behavioral deficits are apparent in subjects with hereditary absence of the corpus callosum (CC). The anterior commissure (AC) has been suggested to provide an extracallosal route for the transfer of interhemispheric information in sub...
Increasing the Raw Intelligence of a Nation is Constrained by Ignorance, Not its Citizens' Genes 1995 688 In The Bell Curve, Herrnstein and Murray claim that a high value for heritability of intelligence limits or constrains the extent to which intelligence can be increased by changing the environment. This article argues that the concept of herit...
Indeterminacy is inherent in an inadequate model of evolution, not in nature 1981 179 Plotkin & Odling-Smee's (P&O's) critique of a "monolithic theory" of evolution espoused by prominent sociobiologists draws attention to the roles of learning, culture, and society in evolution. Insofar as it opposes the simple-minded genetic determin...
Influence of task parameters on rotarod performance and sensitivity to ethanol in mice 2003 1828 Motor performance in mice can be assessed with multiple apparatus and protocols. Use of the rotarod (a.k.a. rotorod, rota-rod, roto-rod, or accelerod) is very common, and it is often used with the apparent assumption by the experimenters that it is a...
Inheritance of retarded forebrain commissure development in fetal mice: Results from classical crosses and recombinant inbred strains. 1989 196 Deficiency of the adult corpus callosum In BALB/c mice shows Incomplete penetrance and is clearly polygenic, whereas the defect In fetuses shows complete penetrance and a much less complex mode of inheritance. Retardation of the growth of the corpus ...
Insensitivity of the analysis of variance to heredity-environment interaction. 1990 426 It makes sense to attribute a definite percentage of variation in some measure of behavior to variation in heredity only if the effects of heredity and environment are truly additive. Additivity is often tested by examining the interaction effect in...
The intelligence of heritability. 1994 1082 The influences of heredity and environment on behaviour are sometimes quantified as a heritability ratio, which assigns a percentage of variation in test scores to variation in the genotypes of individuals. There are compelling reasons, both biologic...
Interacting Effects of Handling and d-Amphetamine on Avoidance Learning 1974 179 Rats were injected with either saline or 2 mg/kg of d-amphetamine 10 min prior to 50 trials of training with either the one-way, shuttle or shuttle-with-handling procedure. One-way training yielded more avoidances and shorter avoidance latenci...
Is a stimulus associated with the escape from shock a positive or negative reinforcer? Study I 1967 271 Rats failed to learn a new (bar press) response to either enter or leave a safe box which had been associated with the offset of shock. However, once the door between the boxes was open, those same rats ran faster leaving the safe box than entering i...
Is a stimulus associated with the escape from shock a positive or negative reinforcer?: Study II 1967 156 Evidence collected in an earlier study indicated a neutral box was preferred to a box associated with escape from shock. The present study repeated this finding using a free access preference test before and after escape training, In general, the neu...
Lasting effects on mouse brain growth of 24 hr postpartum deprivation 1987 192 When inbred BALB/c mice were separated from their mother for 24 or 36 hr beginning shortly after birth, growth of the body, whole brain and corpus callosum was almost completely stopped. After being returned to their mother, mice deprived for 24 hr g...
Leilani Muir versus the Philosopher King: Eugenics on trial in Alberta 1997 1231 The Province of Alberta in Canada was the only jurisdiction in the British Empire where a eugenic sterilization law was passed (in 1928) and vigorously implemented. The pace of sterilization orders accelerated during the Nazi era and remained high af...
Localization of Two New X-Linked Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Corpus Callosum Size in the Mouse 2007 216 Corpus callosum (CC) size is a complex trait, characterized by a gradation of values within a normal range, as well as abnormalities that include a small or totally absent CC. Among inbred mouse strains with defects of the CC, BTBR T+
Maternal Effects on Mouse Brain Weight 1983 463 When BALB/cCF mice were crossed reciprocally with 4 other inbred strains, adult brain weights averaged 21.0 mg heavier for hybrid offspring with a BALB mother than those with a BALB father. Reciprocal backcrosses to BALB revealed that this effect was...
Mode of inheritance of deficient corpus callosum in mice 1982 187 Many mice of the Inbred strain BALB/cCF have deficient corpus callosum, and a few of them have total absence of this large forebrain commissure. Reciprocal F1 hybrid crosses with the inbred strains A/J, C57BL/6J, and DBA/2J revealed that I...
Nascent Doubts May Presage Conceptual Clarity: Reply to Surbey 1994 249 It is difficult for anyone to acknowledge that an idea he or she has been leaching may be invalid. I faced this situation several years ago and, after a period of vacillation, concluded that heritability analysis, the dominant paradigm in behavioural...
A new hybrid mouse model for agenesis of the corpus callosum 1994 268 A three locus model of the inheritance of absent corpus callosum in mice was tested by creating F1 and F2 hybrid crosses from the strains BALB/cWahl and 129/J which show incomplete penetrance for callosal agenesis. The model pre...
No sex difference in mouse digit ratio: reply to Voracek 2006 204 Voracek specializes in the study of human non-neural morphology (Voracek & Fisher 2002) and suicide (Voracek 2005), and he does not appear to appreciate the methods used in experimental mouse genetics. We (Bailey et al. 2005) investigated 2D:4D digit...
Of mice and their environments. (Letter to the Editor). 2003 169 John Bohannon’s article "Can a mouse be standardized?" (News Focus, 20 Dec., p. 2321) cites differences in data between our laboratories in support of his argument that early rearing environments, especially caging and housing conditions, are importa...
Operant Discrimination Learning and Operant Bar-Pressing Rates in Inbred and Heterogeneous Laboratory Mice 1974 311 Mice from four inbred strains and a heterogeneous line were first reduced to 90% of their ad libitum body weight and were then trained to press a bar to obtain food pellets. After 9 days of training with a continuous schedule of reinforcement (CRF), ...
Origins of Genetic Determinism in Medieval Creationism 1998 382 The discovery of statistical laws of heredity by Gregor Mendel was an important advance in biological science. However, Mendel's opinion that the entire character was transmitted was not derived from his data and instead reflected prior beliefs outsi...
Path analysis of sex difference, forebrain commissure area and brain size in relation to degree of laterality in selectively bred mice 1990 291 Male and female mice from HI and LO lines selectively bred by Collins for strength of lateralization were tested for paw preference and then studied histologically to assess size of forebrain commissures and myelination of the corpus callosum. When c...
Patterns of cerebellar foliation in recombinant inbred mice 1991 253 Morphometric analysis of cerebellar foliation patterns at the midsagittal plane was done in the inbred strains BALB/cByJ, C57BL/6ByJ and their 7 recombinant inbred strains in order to assess possible major gene influences. The cerebellum was dissecte...
Phenotypic and Genetic Relations Between Initial Response to Electric Shock and Rate of Avoidance Learning in Mice 1972 230 The first experiment was designed to determine what proportion of the between-strain variation in rate of avoidance learning could be attributed to strain differences in sensitivity and response topography to electric shock. Measures of jumping at si...
Postnatal Development of Brain and Behavior of Shaker Short-Tail Mice 1988 255 Effects of the shaker short-tail gene (an allele at the dreher locus) on behavior and brain morphology were studied. A total of 20 separate litters was tested, one each day from birth to 20 days and one every other day from 22 to 30 days. Within a li...
The Precision of Video and Photocell Tracking Systems and the Elimination of Tracking Errors with Infrared Backlighting 2010 558 Automated tracking offers a number of advantages over both manual and photocell tracking methodologies, including increased reliability, validity, and flexibility of application. Despite the advantages that video offers, our experience has been that ...
Precision Stereotaxic Procedure for the Mouse (Mus musculus): Method and Instrumentation 1977 2287 A precision stereotaxic procedure for mouse brain research is described accompanied by a new design in mouse stereotaxic head holder and a new device used to guarantee accurate alignment of the skull in the stereotaxic device. This method and instrum...
A Precision Surgical Approach for Complete or partial Callosotomy in the Mouse 1995 379 The corpus callosum (CC) of mice was completely transsected with a thin tungsten knife using a three-cut approach through the dorsal cerebrum just lateral to midline. This method results in almost total transsection of the CC throughout its entire ro...
Prenatal Formation of the Normal Mouse Corpus Callosum: A Quantitative Study With Carbocyanine Dyes 1992 307 Judgment of abnormalities in fetal cortical axon development is more sensitive when a good standard of normal ontogeny is established. The recent availability of postmortem tract tracing methods has greatly improved the observation of axon extension ...
The Quantitative Relationship between Nutritional Effects on Preweaning Growth and Behavioral Development in Mice 1989 442 Our objective was to establish whether nutritional effects on the behavioral development of preweaning mouse pups were linearly related to effects on body and brain growth or whether there was a threshold effect, with behavior being affected only by ...
Race, the heritability of IQ, and the intellectual scale of nature 1980 276 A critical response to selected arguments presented by Arthur Jensen regarding intelligence testing, race, and heritability.
A rating scale for wildness and ease of handling laboratory mice: results for 21 inbred strains tested in two laboratories 2003 399 Rating scales for difficulty in capturing and holding mice were devised that proved to be easy to use and highly sensitive to differences among mouse strains on the A and B priority lists of the Mouse Phenome Project. The simplicity of the scales mak...
Recombinant Inbreeding in Mice Reveals Thresholds in Embryonic Corpus Callosum Development 2006 285 The inbred strains BALB/cWah1 and 129P1/ReJ both show incomplete penetrance for absent corpus callosum (CC); about 14% of adult mice have no CC at all. Their F1 hybrid offspring are normal, which proves that the strains differ at two or mo...
Reply: A Note on the Roman and Tryon Selected Lines of Rats 1979 129 We would like to make several brief comments on Professor Broadhurst's letter.
The sentence from Wahlsten's chapter in the Anisman and Bignami volume which Professor Broadhurst is contesting was based on Anisman's personal experiences in 1970-19...
Response initiation and directionality as factors influencing avoidance performance. 1974 164 In 3 experiments it was found that permitting rats to run in either of 2 directions to avoid shock (any-way training) resulted in performance superior to that of 1-way or 2-way avoidance. Moreover, in the any-way condition subjects often selected a b...
Response-contingent CS termination as a factor in avoidance conditioning 1968 639 Four groups of five dogs each underwent acquisition and extinction of a conditioned leg flexion avoidance response, The CS-US interval was 4.0 sec for all groups, but CS duration was either .3. 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 sec for each group. Responses occurring ...
Retarded Formation of the Hippocampal Commissure in Embryos From Mouse Strains Lacking a Corpus Callosum 1997 362 A precise description of the timing and route traveled by axons traversing the telencephalic midline through the ventral hippocampal commissure (HC) is essential for understanding the role it plays in the formation of the corpus callosum (CC). A norm...
Retarded growth of the medial septum: a major gene effect in acallosal mice 1994 266 Absence of the corpus callosum is a hereditary brain defect that appears with varying severity in four inbred mouse strains and is the result of more than one major genetic locus. If relatively few, perhaps two or three, loci are involved in the pren...
Review of "The IQ Game" by Howard Taylor. 1981 234 Taylor's book presents a very thorough critique of major studies which purport to show that variation in human IQ depends largely on genetic differences. Coming after the complete exposure of the fraudulent publications by Sir Cyril Burt, it dispense...
Review of "Race, Evolution and Behavior" by J. P. Rushton. 1995 507 The theory of genetically determined racial differences in ability and behaviour espoused by University of Western Ontario psychology professor J.P. Rushton first gained wide media attention in January of 1989, with Rushton's debut on the "Geraldo" t...
A robust, efficient and flexible method for staining myelinated axons in blocks of brain tissue 2003 1322 Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of the gold chloride method for en bloc staining of a bisected brain in mice and rats. The present study explores several variations in the method, assesses its reliability, and extends the limits of its...
Sample Size Requirements for the Capron and Duyme Balanced Fostering Study of IQ 1993 313 A simplified method is used to estimate the appropriate sample sizes needed to detect main effects and an interaction effect in analysis of variance, using the IQ data from the Capron and Duyme (1991) adoption study as an example. To achieve power of...
Sample Size to Detect a Planned Contrast and a One Degree-of-Freedom Interaction Effect 1991 1018 A simple method is described for estimating the sample size per group required for specified power to detect a linear contrast among J group means. This allows comparison of sample sizes to detect main effects with those needed to detect sever...
Science or prejudice? 1989 386 Why BBS? Rushton invites commentary on his speculations by a wide spectrum of academics, yet he seems to pay no attention whatsoever to previous objections to sociobiology in the pages of this journal or elsewhere. Vaulting Ambition<...
Selective Modification of Short-Term Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity and Impaired Memory Extinction in Mice with a Congenitally Reduced Hippocampal Commissure 2002 187 The hippocampus is critical for forming new long-term memories, but the contributions of the hippocampal commissure (HC) to memory function and hippocampal synaptic plasticity are unclear. To shed light on this issue, we characterized behavioral ...
Sex and species differences in mouse and rat forebrain commissures depend on the method of adjusting for brain size 1999 689 Sex differences in the forebrain commissures (corpus callosum, hippocampal commissure, and anterior commissure) were examined in B6D2F2 hybrid mice and Sprague–Dawley rats. Twenty-four male–female littermate pairs of mice were perfused at each of 21,...
Sex Differences in the Human Corpus Callosum: Myth or Reality? 1997 1382 It has been claimed that the human corpus callosum shows sex differences, and in particular that the splenium (the posterior portion) is larger in women than in men. Data collected before 1910 from cadavers indicate that, on average, males have large...
Shaker short-tail, a spontaneous neurological mutant in the mouse 1983 247 A spontaneous mutation that occurred in the Inbred strain BALB/cCF In 1980 proved to be inherited as a single autosomal recessive gene with complete penetrance. Homozygous recessive animals have a short or blunt tall, an irregular pattern of foliatio...
Shock-Induced Activity Changes, Adrenal Lipid Depletion and Brain Weight in Mice: A Genetic Study 1976 189 Motor activity was evaluated before and after a brief electric shock. Whereas small genetic differences in activity were apparent prior to shock, large group differences occurred following shock. C57 mice did not freeze following a shock; DBA mice sh...
Single-gene influences on brain and behavior 1999 1039 As traditional behavioral genetics analysis merges with neurogenetics, the field of neurobehavioral genetics, focusing on single-gene effects, comes into being. New biotechnology has greatly accelerated gene discovery and the study of gene function i...
Sociobiology flops again 1993 259 It is difficult to take seriously something that states flatly that "physical and psychological characteristics can hardly be modified voluntarily," especially during the Olympic Games, which began shortly after Perusse's preprint was circulated for ...
Some logical fallacies in the classical ethological point of view 1979 185 E-E has written a concise exposition of the classical ethological view of human behavior. The ethology of Lorenz and his followers has been incisively criticized by Lehrman and others, but it appears from E-E's essay that these criticisms have brough...
Stability of Inbred Mouse Strain Differences in Behavior and Brain Size between Laboratories and Across Decades 2006 220 If we conduct the same experiment in two laboratories or repeat a classical study many years later, will we obtain the same results? Recent research with mice in neural and behavioral genetics yielded different results in different laboratories for c...
Standardizing tests of mouse behavior: Reasons, recommendations, and reality 2001 1340 As more investigators with widely varying backgrounds enter the field of mouse behavioral genetics, there is a growing need to standardize some of the more popular tests because differences between laboratories in the details of behavioral testing an...
Strain differences in three measures of ethanol intoxication in mice: the screen, dowel and grip strength tests 2003 437 Mice from 8 to 21 inbred strains were tested for sensitivity to ethanol intoxication using a range of doses and three different measures: the screen test, the dowel test and a test of grip strength. Strains differed under nearly all conditions. For t...
Survey of 21 inbred mouse strains in two laboratories reveals that BTBR T/+ tf/tf has severely reduced hippocampal commissure and absent corpus callosum 2003 404 A morphometric survey of brain size and forebrain commissures of 21 inbred mouse strains from the Jackson Laboratory was done with animals tested in two laboratories as part of the Mouse Phenome Project. Strain BTBR T / + tf/tf was fou...
Testing the Genetics of Behavior in Mice: Response 1999 158 Our colleagues make important points about the stability of genetic differences in mouse behavior across laboratories.
We agree completely with the points raised by Picciotto and Self. We find the stability of several effects reassuring. Also...
Tests of Genetic Allelism between Four Inbred Mouse Strains with Absent Corpus Callosum 1991 184 Inbred mouse strains that lack the corpus callosum connecting the cerebral hemispheres in the adult differ from the C57BL/6J strain at several relevant but unknown loci. To identify at least one major locus that influences axon guidance, different st...
Timing and Origin of the First Cortical Axons to Project Through the Corpus Callosum and the Subsequent Emergence of Callosal Projection Cells in the Mouse 1998 274 A precise knowledge of the timing and origin of the first cortical axons to project through the corpus callosum (CC) and of the subsequent emergence of callosal projection cells is essential for understanding the early ontogeny of this commissure. By...
Wheel running behavior is impaired by both surgical section and genetic absence of the mouse corpus callosum 2002 208 Mice lacking a corpus callosum (CC) often show little or no deficit on tests of behavior. This paper reports that on highly complex bimanual motor tasks, deficits can be found. The speed of running on a wheel with irregularly spaced rungs is reduced ...
Why early intervention works A reply to Baumeister and Bacharach 2002 386 In a wide-ranging critique of compensatory education, Baumeister and Bacharach [Intelligence 23 (1996) 28 (2000)] focus most specifically on the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP), an intervention program lasting from birth through age 3 fo...