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Diane L. Gill

Diane L. Gill, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Kinesiology at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Her research interests focus on physical activity and well-being across the lifespan, with an emphasis on social psychology, particularly gender and cultural diversity. She received both her M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Illinois, and her undergraduate degree from the SUNY at Cortland. She held faculty positions at the University of Waterloo and the University of Iowa before moving to UNCG in January 1987. At UNCG she has served as Associate Dean of the School of Health and Human Performance, Head of the Department of Exercise and Sport Science (now Kinesiology), and as the founding Director of the Center for Women’s Health and Wellness. Her scholarly publications include the text, Psychological Dynamics of Sport and Exercise, several book chapters, and over 100 journal articles. She has presented over 100 research papers and invited addresses at national and international conferences, and received several awards for her research and professional work. She is a fellow in several professional organizations, a former president of Division 47 (Exercise and Sport Psychology) of the American Psychological Association, of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity, and of the Research Consortium of AAHPERD. She serves on several editorial boards and is former editor of the Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology.

There are 63 included publications by Diane L. Gill :

TitleDateViewsBrief Description
Age before beauty: An exploration of body image in African-American and Caucasian adult women. 2008 134 Research on body image emphasizes risks for eating disorders and typically involves young, Caucasian women. Few studies examine body image beyond the college years and there appears to be a disregard for the mature woman, as if self-acceptance of one...
Athletes’ perceptions of the sport climate for athletes with non- gender-congruent expressions and non-heterosexual sexual orientations in Taiwan. 2012 90 The purpose of this study was to explore athletes’ perceptions of the sport climate for athletes with non-gender-congruent gender expressions and non-heterosexual sexual orientations. Surveys on attitudes/perceived climate, prejudiced incidents, and ...
Attitudes and sexual prejudice in sport and physical activity. 2006 3632 This study focused on attitudes and sexual prejudice as part of a larger project on inclusive practice in sport and physical activity settings. Questionnaires were administered to a large sample of undergraduate students and to selected samples of up...
Beyond the Qualitative–Quantitative Dichotomy: Notes from a Non-qualitative Researcher 2011 57 Qualitative research provides lessons for the psychology of physical activity. Specifically, qualitative research highlights the social context, multiple truths and multiple paths to those truths. All methods are limited and all knowledge is incomple...
A case study of leadership in women's intercollegiate softball. 1979 639 The relationship of selected characteristics to the relative leadership status within a women’s intercollegiate softball team was investigated using a multiple regression design. At the beginning of the season all 23 members of the team were assigned...
Cognitive orientations of ultramarathoners. 1992 2173 The purpose of this study was to examine the sport-specific cognitions of 112 ultramarathoners competing in a 100-mile trail run. Subjects completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, the Trait Sport-Confidence Inventory, the Commitment to Running ...
Collegiate athletes perceptions of the coaching profession. 2008 399 In this study, we examined college athletes’ interest in and perceptions of the coaching profession. A total of 201 U.S. Division I athletes (100 males, 101 females; 119 White, 81 minority, 1 race unknown) completed measures of a) their intention ...
Commentary: Views on Sport Development Feature 2011 55 I appreciate the opportunity to review and offer commentary on the articles in this special edition on sport development. The discussion of sport development as a scholarly and programmatic movement is a new and welcome discovery for me. Thus, this c...
A comparison of competitive orientation measures. 1991 2036 We compared two sport-specific measures of competitive orientation, the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ; Gill & Deeter, 1988) and the Competitive Orientation Inventory (COI; Vealey, 1986), and an alternative 4-item version of the COI. Male and f...
Comparison of three measures of pre-competition arousal. 1980 608 Arousal was assessed at a practice session and immediately prior to a competitive volleyball match using three measures, the sudorimeter and Palmar Sweat Index measures of palmar sweating and a state-anxiety inventory. Multivariate analysis of varian...
Competitive orientations among intercollegiate athletes: Is winning the only thing? 1988 5706 In this exploratory investigation of competitive orientations, intercollegiate athletes from a highly competitive Division I program and nonathletes from the same university completed Gill's Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ) which assesses compet...
Competitive orientations and motives of adult sport and exercise participants. 1996 2272 Participants in four different adult sport and exercise programs (running club, exercise classes, cardiac rehabilitation program, senior games) completed measures of competitive orientation and participation motivation. Our samples were older and mor...
Competitive trait anxiety, success-failure and sex as determinants of motor performance. 1976 1153 Two experiments determined the effects of competitive trait anxiety, success-failure, and sex on the performance of 10- to 12-yr.-?ld children anxiety, success-failure, and sex on the performance of 10- to 12-yr.-?ld children competing on a complex m...
Competitiveness among females and males in physical activity classes. 1986 5588 Competitive orientations of 237 male and female undergraduates enrolled in competitive and noncompetitive physical activity classes were investigated using the Work and Family Orientation Questionnaire [WOFO: R. L. Helmreich and J. T. Spence, "The Wo...
A content analysis of cultural diversity in the Association for Applied Sport Psychology’s conference programs. 2010 326 The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP) conference programs address cultural diversity. A content analysis was conducted by analyzing 5214 AASP conference program abstracts fr...
A cross-cultural extension of goal perspective theory to Korean youth sport. 1997 2774 This study examined the predictions of goal perspective theory within Korean youth sport. Middle-school-aged athletes (244 males and 90 females) completed the Korean versions of Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and the Intrinsi...
Development of a measure of rehabilitation adherence for athletic training. 2010 347 CONTEXT: Rehabilitation adherence is accepted as a critical component for attaining optimal outcomes. Poor adherence is recognized as a problem in the athletic training setting. Measurement has been inconsistent, and no measure has been developed for...
Differentiated roles of social encouragement and social constraint on physical activity behavior. 2005 638 Background: Social support is, in general, positively associated with exercise behavior. However, social influence may not always be helpful and may sometimes lead to obligation or a sense of intrusion rather than encouragement or assistance. Purpose...
Exercise: Complementary therapy for breast cancer rehabilitation. 2002 1153 Our feminist perspective is one of empowerment for breast cancer survivors, and we believe that physical activity and exercise have the potential to shift the battle away from fear of living to living fully. In light of the psychosocial and cultural ...
Experiences in Sport, Physical Activity, and Physical Education Among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian Adolescent Girls 2012 141 Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate ...
A feminist perspective on sport psychology practice. 1994 4162 The feminist paradigm has been advocated as an appropriate alternative framework for sport psychology theory and research. The current paper extends the feminist perspective to sport psychology practice, particularly to educational consultation. Appl...
Feminist Sport Psychology: A Guide for Our Journey. 2001 1999 Feminist sport psychology encompasses many approaches and has many variations. The articles in this special issue reflect that variation but also reflect common themes outlined in this introductory article. The feminist framework for this article be...
Gender differences in self-confidence on a feminine-typed task. 1994 4825 The present study answered Lirgg's (1991) call for confidence studies employing a feminine-typed task by assessing self-confidence and gender appropriateness in college cheerleading. Questionnaires assessing self-confidence and the gender appropriate...
Helmet fit and cervical spine motion in collegiate men’s lacrosse athletes secured to a spine board. 2010 59 Context: Proper management of cervical spine injuries in men's lacrosse players depends in part upon the ability of the helmet to immobilize the head. Objective: To determine if properly and improperly fitted lacrosse helmets provide adequate stab...
A home-based intervention to improve balance, gait and self-confidence in older women. 2001 898 Much of the current research focusing on the physical function of the elderly involves closely monitored interventions in group settings. Although home-based programs might be more appropriate for many older adults, little research is available. In t...
A Hybrid Online Intervention for Reducing Sedentary Behavior in Obese Women 2013 136 Sedentary behavior (SB) has emerged as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. While exercise is known to reduce these risks, reducing SB through increases in non-structured PA and breaks from sitting may appeal to ...
Immediate effects of win-loss on perceptions of cohesion in intramural and intercollegiate volleyball teams. 1982 2598 In two separate studies, members of 16 women's intramural volleyball teams (n = 94) and six women's intercollegiate volleyball teams (n = 68) completed pre-and postmatch questionnaires to determine the immediate effects of success-failure on percepti...
Integration: The key to sustaining kinesiology in higher education. 2007 152 Integration is the key to sustaining kinesiology as an academic and professional discipline in higher education. Following the vision of Amy Morris Homans, this paper focuses on integration in three ways. First, integration of our multidisciplinary...
Jealousy in sport: Exploring jealousy’s relationship to cohesion. 2005 1050 The present study continued the development and revision of the Sport Jealousy Scale (SJS) and investigated the relationships among jealousy, cohesion, and satisfaction with athletes. The original SJS (now SJS-II) was revised and given to 236 Divisio...
Measurement, statistics and research design issues in sport and exercise psychology. 1997 2693 The theme that continues throughout this article is the one take-home, bottom- line message for both sport and exercise psychology scholars and our measurement colleagues: Identifying our research questions, or achieving conceptual clarity, is the so...
Mind Over Matter, The Development of The Mental Toughness Scale (MTS) 2013 912 Mental Toughness (MT), which refers to an inner focus and commitment to rise above challenges when facing adversity, is viewed as one of the most important psychological attributes in determining success in sport. However, there is little consensus o...
Open-ended attributions in team competition. 1982 1240 A total of 352 open-ended attributions were obtained in two field studies with volleyball teams and in two lab experiments, all involving team competition. All attributions were classified along the three causal dimensions of locus of causality, stab...
Perceived barriers to physical activity across Norwegian adult age groups, gender, and stages of change. 2008 326 This study investigated differences in the type of and number of perceived barriers to engagement in physical activity experienced by adult women and men in the same geographical area, the relationship between the experienced barriers and stages of c...
Perceived climate in physical activity settings. 2010 174 This study focused on the perceived climate for LGBT youth and other minority groups in physical activity settings. A large sample of undergraduates and a selected sample including student teachers/interns and a campus Pride group completed a school ...
Perceived physical competence and body image as predictors of perceived peer acceptance in adolescents. 2012 191 The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among perceived physical competence, body image, and peer acceptance. Body image was considered as a possible mediator of the relationships between perceived physical competence and peer ...
Perceived physical competence, enjoyment, and effort in same-sex and coeducational physical education classes. 2011 628 Perceived competence is a key motivational determinant of physical activity behaviours in adolescents, and motivational determinants are influenced by the class environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate levels of perceived physical co...
Perceived stress and blood pressure in early adolescent children. 2000 1120 The objective of this investigation was to determine the individual contributions of perceived daily, major and total stressors to blood pressure in early adolescent children. Toward this goal, cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in 74 6th- gra...
Physical activity and psychological well- being in older women. 1997 1414 Physical activity clearly has benefits for the health and well-being of women and men of all ages, and activity may well be particularly beneficial for older individuals. Physical gains and health benefits of activity are well documented, and physica...
Physical Activity and Quality of life. 2013 180 Physical activity (PA) professionals and participants recognize enhanced quality of life (QoL) as a benefit of and motivator for PA. However, QoL measures are often problematic and rarely consider the participants’ perspective. This paper focuses on ...
A prospective view of the Journal of Sport (and Exercise) Psychology. 1986 773 This article has two major purposes, to discuss the general scope and direction of the Journal of Sport Psychology (JSP) and to describe the basic editorial review process. During its first 7 years the journal has developed into the premier scientifi...
Psychological and physiological changes in competitive state anxiety during noncompetition and competitive success and failure. 1990 5445 In this study we examined relationships among components of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (cognitive worry, somatic anxiety, and self- confidence) to each other, to physiological measures, and to performance prior to, during, and after a ...
Psychosocial factors related to eating disorders among high school and college female cheerleaders. 1996 6094 Seventy-three college female and 84 high school female cheerleaders participated in the current study on eating disorders and pressures within cheerleading. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Social Physique Anxiety S...
Quality of life assessment in physical activity and health promotion. 2011 434 Despite the clear relationship of physical activity and quality of life (QoL), QoL measures are seldom targeted for physical activity and health promotion. The current research attempted to address that gap by developing a QoL measure based on a conc...
Quest for kinesiology in higher education. 2010 127 As I begin my term as Editor of Quest, I submit this editorial to outline my vision for Quest. First, I must thank the Board of Directors of the National Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education (NAKPEHE) for entrusting me with the editor...
The Relationship between Athletic Identity and Physical Activity among Former College Athletes 2013 157 The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between athletic identity and physical activity among former college athletes. The relationship was first examined with former Division I athletes (N=56) and then in a second sample of former ...
The relationship between competitive orientation and religious orientation. 1990 1543 Previous research suggests that religious orientation relates to people's choice of activities and behaviors. Religious orientation has not been examined in relation to sport and competitive orientation. This study examined the relationship of religi...
The relationship of competitiveness and achievement orientation to participation in sport and nonsport activities. 1988 10378 The validity of the recently developed Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ), a multidimensional measure of sport achievement orientation, was investigated with both high school and university students. Specifically, we examined the correlations of S...
The relationships among competitive orientation, sport-confidence, self- efficacy, anxiety and performance. 1991 7393 We examined the relationships among trait and state psychological variables and performance in male high school distance runners using the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ; Gill & Deeter, 1988), the Competitive Orientation Inventory (COI; Vealey,...
The relationships among self-efficacy, stress responses and a cognitive feedback manipulation. 1984 3522 The influence of self-efficacy on physiological arousal and self-reported anxiety was examined in the first phase of this study. All 32 undergraduate females in the study performed five trials of both an easy task and a difficult task, with half of t...
Reliability and validity of the Physical Self-Efficacy Scale in a competitive sport setting. 1983 10621 Interest in the role of self-confidence in sport performance has been high in sport psychology research. A measure to assess general physical self-efficacy has recently been developed, but without application to competitive sport performance. The pre...
The role of perceived competence in the motivation of physical activity. 1995 8505 Understanding the role of perceived competence in the motivation of sport and physical activity is an importan1 endeavor. This study attempted to examine the role of perceived competence by (a) investigating its relationship with goal orientations as...
The roles of want to commitment and have to commitment in explaining physical activity behavior. 2011 314 Background: Several theories and models have been proposed to explain decisions in changing and adopting behavior but few address the intricacies of behavioral maintenance. The current study assesses the utility of the Investment Model, which ident...
Self-talk and Softball Performance: The Role of Self-talk Nature, Motor Task Characteristics, and Self-efficacy in Novice Softball Players 2014 637 Objectives: To determine the effect of self-talk on softball throwing performance. Additionally, two moderators, nature of self-talk and type of motor task, as well as a potential mediator of self-efficacy were examined. Design: An experimental, wit...
Sexual harassment perceptions among Puerto Rican female former athletes. 2011 243 Sexual harassment is a prominent social issue across cultures and in all segments of society, including sport. However, there is little research on sexual harassment in different cultures. Specifically, the lack of sport research within the Hispanic-...
Slim enough to swim? Weight pressures for competitive swimmers and coaching implications. 2001 1484 Swimmers found themselves in the spotlight at the 2000 Sydney Olympics and in the scrutiny of spectators and sport researchers alike. An attempt is often made to determine what the athlete is feeling behind the scenes and this article will focus on b...
Sport and exercise psychology around the world. 2000 3059 The recent Olympic games not only highlighted international sport, but also showcased psychology at work (or at play). Olympic competitors from around the world discussed mental training and cited experiences with sport psychologists. Less visibly, b...
A sport and exercise psychology perspective on stress. 1994 7756 My purpose is to introduce the psychological perspective (or perspectives) on stress. In doing so, I will focus on conceptual models or frameworks that guide sport and exercise psychology work on stress, leaving the details of the research findings a...
Sport Gender Ideology, Past Contact Experiences and Attitudes toward Sexual Minority Athletes in Taiwan 2012 146 The purpose of this study was to examine sport gender ideology (belief that men in sport have to show their masculinity and women their femininity) and past contact experiences as predictors of coaches’ and athletes’ attitudes toward sexual minority ...
Status of the Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 1985-1990. 1992 756 Information on submitted manuscripts and editorial decisions suggested that the journal has maintained its status as a respected sport and exercise psychology research publication from 1985 to 1990. Most submitted manuscripts described research on sp...
Success-failure attributions in competitive groups: An exception to egocentrism. 1980 992 Two laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate success/failure attributions within competing groups. In both studies, attributions to the own team or to opponents were egocentric in that members of winning teams assigned responsibility for ...
Tai chi chuan, health- related quality of life, and self-esteem: A randomized trial for breast cancer survivors. 2004 1369 Goals Health-related quality of life (HRQL) and self-esteem are often diminished among women diagnosed and treated for breast cancer. Tai Chi is a moderate form of exercise that may be an effective therapy for improving HRQL and self-esteem among the...
Temporal changes in psychological and physiological components of state anxiety. 1987 1951 This study examined the relationships of cognitive worry, somatic anxiety, and self-confidence—all components of the CSAI-2 (Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2)—to each other, to physiological measures, and to motor performance prior to, during, a...
Women's place in the history of sport psychology. 1995 5585 Women and women's issues have a place in sport psychology today, but women have no place in most histories of the field. Some women sport psychologists, particularly Dorothy Harris, were instrumental in the development of sport psychology as a subdis...