Competitiveness among females and males in physical activity classes.

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Diane L. Gill, Professor (Creator)
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
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Abstract: Competitive orientations of 237 male and female undergraduates enrolled in competitive and noncompetitive physical activity classes were investigated using the Work and Family Orientation Questionnaire [WOFO: R. L. Helmreich and J. T. Spence, "The Work and Family Orientation Questionnaire: An Objective Instrument to Assess Components of Achievement Motivation and Attitudes Toward Family and Career," Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 1978, 8(2) (Document #1677)] and a Competitiveness Inventory. Factor analysis confirmed the four WOFO dimensions proposed by Helmreich and Spence (mastery, work, competitiveness, personal unconcern). Factor analysis of the Competitiveness Inventory revealed three factors termed competitiveness, goal orientation, and win orientation. Sex x Activity Class (competitive or noncompetitive) (2 x 2) multivariate analyses revealed sex differences on the WOFO scores, both sex and activity differences on the Competitiveness Inventory scores, and no interactions. Sex differences on the WOFO scores confirmed Spence and Helmreich's findings; females scored higher on work and males scored higher on competitiveness. On the Competitiveness Inventory, males scored slightly higher than females on competitiveness, but most of the multivariate sex difference was due to males scoring higher on win orientation and females scoring higher on goal orientation. In contrast, the multivariate activity difference was due primarily to competitiveness; students in competitive activities scored considerably higher on competitiveness than students in non-competitive activities. The findings suggest that sport-achievement orientation has a unique factor structure and provide evidence supporting the validity of the sport-specific, multidimensional Competitiveness Inventory.

Additional Information

Sex Roles, 15, 233- 257
Language: English
Date: 1986
Competitive orientations, Work and Family Orientation Questionnaire (WOFO)

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