Albert N. Link

Albert N. Link is Professor of economics at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG). He received, with honors, the B.S. degree in mathematics from the University of Richmond in 1971 and the Ph.D. degree in economics from Tulane University in 1976. After receiving the Ph.D., he joined the economics faculty at Auburn University where he remained until 1982 when he joined the economics faculty at UNCG. Professor Link’s research focuses on technology and innovation policy, the economics of R&D, and policy/program evaluation. He is currently the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Technology Transfer. Among his more than 40 books, some of the more recent ones are: Public Goods, Public Gains (Oxford University Press, 2011), Government as Entrepreneur (Oxford University Press, 2009), and Cyber Security: Economic Strategies and Public Policy Alternatives (Edward Elgar, 2008). His other research consists of more than 125 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters. Some of his scholarship has appeared in such journals as the American Economic Review, the Journal of Political Economy, the Review of Economics and Statistics, Economica, and Research Policy. Professor Link is an accomplished statistician/econometrician with significant experience in survey design and implementation. His expertise in statistics and survey design/implementation is evident through his published research as well as through his public and private service. Among his accomplishments in this area, he designed, implemented, and analyzed statistically: the Semiconductor Research Corporation’s (SRC’s) membership survey and subsequent evaluation of its management efficiency, the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s (NIST’s) survey of the Advanced Technology Program’s internal support of NIST’s research laboratories, the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award program’s survey of award recipients and subsequent analysis of the economic returns to the program, and the National Science Foundation sponsored survey and analysis of U.S. university science and technology parks. Professor Link was also a member of the National Research Council’s research team that formulated a survey instrument and subsequently analyzed the survey findings for its evaluation of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Professor Link testified before Congress in April 2011 on the economic benefits associated with the SBIR program. Research related to that testimony is in his most recent book, Employment Growth from Public Support of Innovation in Small Firms (Upjohn Institute, 2012). Among other accomplishments, Professor Link was tapped by the State Department in 2007 to serve as the U.S. Representative to the United Nation’s Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) in Geneva (2007-2012).

There are 176 included publications by Albert N. Link :

TitleDateViewsBrief Description
Advancing conceptualisation of university entrepreneurial ecosystems: The role of knowledge-intensive entrepreneurial firms 2019 970 University entrepreneurial ecosystems are increasingly important in facilitating innovation and entrepreneurial opportunities in today’s knowledge-based economies. However, we have an incomplete understanding of the demand side of university entrepre...
Alternative sources of technology: An analysis of induced innovations 1983 38 This paper considers why firms differ in the degree to which they rely on their internal R&D organization for generating new technologies (induced innovations) rather than on existing external technology markets (purchased innovations). An empirical ...
An Analysis of the Composition of R&D. Spending. 1982 2349 Research and development encompasses a myriad of activities. Generally, research is the primary search for technical or scientific advancement, and development is the translation of such advancement into product of process innovations. The National S...
An analysis of policy initiatives to promote strategic research partnerships 2002 930 Strategic research partnerships (SRPs) have become a salient feature of the US National Innovation System. We provide an overview of SRPs and examine the antecedents and consequences of centerpiece legislation designed to stimulate the formation of S...
Are public sector workers more risk averse than private sector workers? 1981 4862 Available evidence suggests that stability of employment is greater in the public sector than in the private sector. The value that individuals place on tbis stability depends on tbe individual's degree of risk aversion. Economic reasoning suggest...
Assessing the economic impacts of university R&D and identifying roles for technology transfer officers 2000 73 The increasing role that universities are playing in supporting national technological infrastructure and the increasing attention that governments are paying towards fiscal responsibility combine to underscore the importance for universities of demo...
Assessing the impact of organizational practices on the relative productivity of university technology transfer offices: an exploratory study. 2003 4805 We present quantitative and qualitative evidence on the relative productivity of university technology transfer offices (TTOs). Our empirical results suggest that TTO activity is characterized by constant returns to scale and that environmental and i...
Barriers Inhibiting Industry from Partnering with Universities: Evidence from the Advanced Technology Program 2001 14 This paper describes a small, unique set of project data that was assembled as part of a larger study on universities as research partners. Herein, we summarize, to the extent possible, our interpretation of what the project data reveal about barrier...
Barriers to the diffusion of nanotechnology. 2008 2444 This paper provides the first empirical information about barriers related to the diffusion of nanotechnology, a general purpose technology. Our analysis is based on the findings from a state-wide survey of companies in North Carolina, USA. We find t...
Basic Research and Productivity Increase in Manufacturing: Additional Evidence 1981 3712 In a recent paper in this Review, Edwin Mansfield illustrated empirically (using a sample of ten petroleum and six chemical firms) that firm rates of productivity change are related to the amount of companyfinanced basic research performed, cert...
Bringing science to market: Commercializing from NIH SBIR awards. 2009 1582 We offer empirical information on the correlates of commercialization activity for research projects funded through the US National Institutes of Health's (NIH's) Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) award program. Based on this analysis we sugg...
Capturing knowledge: Private gains and public gains from university research partnerships 2015 36 In this monograph I ask: Does university involvement in the research of private firms enhance the firm's private gains as well as society's public gains? To address this question I analyzed, in an exploratory manner, data relevant to firm-based resea...
Case study of R&D efficiency in an ATP joint venture 1998 64 This paper summarizes the technical accomplishments and presents selected measures of research efficiencies and early stage economic impacts of the Printed Wiring Board (PWB) Research Joint Venture Project. The project was cost-shared by the Advanced...
The changing composition of R & D 1985 10 There has been a trend away from basic research toward development spending at all levels within the economy. In constant dollars, basic research peaked in 1953 at 4.2% of total industrial R & D, but steadily fell to 2.8% by 1977, where it has approx...
A Comment on the "Efficient Allocation of Resources in a Regulated and Unionized Monopoly" 1977 885 In the April 1976 issue of this Journal Mirakhor suggested that an efficient allocation of resources is possible for a profit maximizing monopolist operating under regulatory and union constraints. This analysis may be extended by assuming the monopo...
Commercial complexity and entrepreneurial finance 2017 93 This paper shows that the probability of small business firms obtaining outside financing to support their research and development projects is greater given more complex commercial opportunities – defined as a greater number of different potential a...
Commercial knowledge transfers from universities to firms: improving the effectiveness of university-industry collaboration. 2003 9996 There has been a rapid rise in commercial knowledge transfers from universities to practitioners or university–industry technology transfer (UITT), through licensing agreements, research joint ventures, and start-ups. The purpose of this study was to...
Concentration and the returns to R&D 1984 55 A frequently tested aspect of Schumpeter's (1950) theory of growth and development is the relationship between R&D spending and concentration. Although some researchers have found statistical support for the proposition that firms in concentrated ind...
Creativity-enhancing technological change in the production of scientific knowledge 2020 70 We view scientific publications as a measure of technical knowledge. Using the Solow method of functional decomposition and scientific publication data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, we find that 79% of the increase in scien...
Declining Productivity Revisited: Secular Trends or Cyclical Losses? 1984 1646 Dickens (1982) argued that the productivity slowdown since the mid 1960s is cyclical and not a long-term trend. This letter tests the robustness of Dickens' conclusion, specifically with respect to labor productivity.
Deploying Homeland Security Technology 2003 1250 Question: What do the Department of Homeland Security, Intel, and Disney have in common?1 Answer: The success of each depends on how efficiently they implement new technologies. Although the White House and the Congress have responded swif...
Dynamic entrepreneurship and technology-based innovation 2016 122 This paper seeks to distinguish between dynamic and static entrepreneurship. We define the construct of dynamic entrepreneurship in terms of Schumpeterian innovativeness and then develop a hypothesis suggesting that human capital is conducive to such...
Dynamic entrepreneurship: On the performance of U.S. research joint ventures 2017 72 In this paper, we present descriptive findings on the research success of U.S. research joint ventures (RJVs). Using survey-based data of a sample of U.S. RJVs, we build on the theory of dynamic entrepreneurship to develop an empirical model of cross...
An econometric analysis of trends in research joint venture activity 2005 97 Edith Penrose noted that firms may need to rely on research joint ventures (RJVs) to acquire access to resources that can help them achieve and sustain a competitive advantage. We estimate an econometric model of the propensity of firms to disclose t...
An economic analysis of cooperative research 1987 65 The U.S. government's most recent policy initiative to increase industrial research activity is the National Cooperative Research Act of 1984. Since its passage much attention has been given to this new organizational research form, but to date there...
Economic analysis of opportunities to accelerate Alzheimer's disease research and development 2014 10 The development of disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) faces a number of barriers. Among these are the lack of surrogate biomarkers, the exceptional size and duration of clinical trials, difficulties in identifying appropriate p...
An economic analysis of R & D joint ventures 1986 11 A graphical model of co-operative R & D activity is presented, from which outcomes of R & D joint ventures are posited. The analysis predicts that R & D spending will increase as a result of co-operation and that the increment will tend to be in basi...
The economic benefits of technology transfer from U.S. federal laboratories 2019 74 In this paper we review the legislative emphasis on technology transfers from U.S. federal laboratories, and we present a framework to describe how private sector firms benefit from the adoption of technologies from federal laboratories. We conclude ...
The economic contribution of a cohort of new firms over time 2020 88 What is the economic contribution of a cohort of new entrants? Previous research has investigated this topic but only in passing, and found conflicting results. We analyze a cohort of 6578 firms that entered in 2004, and track them for 10 years with ...
An economic evaluation of the Baldrige National Quality Program. 2006 2582 All federal programs are accountable for their use of public funds. This paper presents conservative estimates of the net social benefits associated with the Baldrige National Quality Award Program, established within the National Institute of Standa...
Economic implications of raising the threshold funding limits on US Small Business Innovation Research awards 2010 79 The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we investigate empirically the economic implications of increasing the threshold funding limits on Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards. Specifically, we estimate the impact of an increase in a...
Economic performance measures for evaluating government-sponsored research 1996 65 The purpose of this paper is to discuss, in general terms, evaluation issues related to government-sponsored research and to describe and critique the usefulness of economic performance measures for evaluating such activity. Herein is presented an ov...
The economics of science and technology 2002 71 This paper provides a non-technical, accessible introduction to various topics in the burgeoning literature on the economics of science and technology. This is an interdisciplinary literature, drawing on the work of scholars in the fields of economic...
The economics of university research parks. 2007 3843 In recent years, there has been a substantial increase in public and private investment in university research parks (URPs). URPs are important as an infrastructural mechanism for the transfer of academic research findings, as a source of knowledge s...
The effects of governmental financing on firms' R&D activities: a theoretical and empirical investigation 1990 2154 There is a long history of governmental support for private innovative activity in the U.S.A. However, the economic research on this topic has been narrow in focus, emphasizing primarily the relationship between the level of governmental R&D and the ...
Embracing an entrepreneurial ecosystem: an analysis of the governance of research joint ventures 2019 135 In this paper, we examine how one important type of relationship, research joint ventures (RJVs), is governed within the context of an entrepreneurial ecosystem. Based on agency theory, we investigate the relationship between the governance structure...
An empirical analysis of the propensity of academics to engage in informal university technology transfer. 2007 2884 Formal university technology transfer mechanisms, through licensing agreements, research joint ventures, and university-based startups, have attracted considerable attention in the academic literature. Surprisingly, there has been little systematic e...
Employment growth from public support of innovation in small firms 2012 2456 Herein, we investigate the impacts of the US publicly funded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program's funding on the overall employment growth of SBIR award-recipient firms. This paper is motivated by the US Congress’ continued emphasis on...
Employment growth from the Small Business Innovation Research program. 2012 2479 This paper investigates employment growth in small firms funded by the U.S. Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Using data collected by the National Research Council for each of five federal agencies, our analysis shows that on average...
Employment in China’s hi-tech zones 2018 87 The purpose of this paper is to explore employment differences over time across China’s hi-tech zones. Using data from China’s Ministry of Science and Technology, we find that if a university science park is within a hi-tech zone, employment in that ...
The entrepreneur as innovator 2006 256 Throughout intellectual history as we know it, the entrepreneur has worn many faces and played many roles. One of those roles is innovator. This essay establishes a chronological trace of the entrepreneur as innovator in an effort to place contempora...
Entrepreneurship and Human Capital: Evidence of Patenting Activity from the Academic Sector. 2007 2717 This paper presents empirical evidence of the relationship between faculty entrepreneurial activity—quantified in terms of the propensity of U.S. university faculty to work directly with industry on research activities that lead to patents—and human ...
Entrepreneurship and innovation: public policy frameworks. 2012 2984 The purpose of this paper is to identify and unravel the disparate views toward innovation prevalent within the economic community and to link them to the various public policy approaches. These various schools of thought, or ways of thinking about t...
Entrepreneurship and knowledge spillovers from the public sector 2019 82 A compelling body of research has found that investments in knowledge from other firms and universities spill over to enhance the performance of entrepreneurial firms. This literature has shown that firm performance is positively related to investmen...
Estimating the benefits from collaboration: The case of SEMATECH 1996 103 SEMATECH (SEmiconductor MAnufacturing TECHnology) was established in 1987 as a not-for-profit research consortium with an original mission to provide a pilot manufacturing facility where member companies could improve their semiconductor manufacturin...
Evaluating Public Sector R&D Programs: The Advanced Technology Program's Investment in Wavelength References for Optical Fiber Communications 2004 86 Griliches (1958) [Journal of Political Economy,66: 419--431] and Mansfield et al. (1977) [Quarterly Journal of Economics 91: 221--240] pioneered the application of fundamental economic insight to the development of measurements of private and social ...
Evaluating technology-based public institutions: the case of radiopharmaceutical standards research at the National Institute of Standards and Technology 1998 71 The purpose of this paper is to illustrate, through one case study, the current state of program evaluation in the research laboratories at the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The history of NIST's radiopharmaceutical standa...
Explaining observed licensing agreements: Toward a broader understanding of technology flows 2002 71 A lack of quantitative information on cross-firm licensing agreements constrains policy makers in their overall understanding of the innovation process and the innovative environment of firms. This paper develops a methodology for understanding the p...
The exploitation of publicly funded technology. 2013 1640 In this paper we focus on technology that resulted from R&D projects funded by US Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II awards. We ask: Is there evidence that strategic commercial agreements allow foreign firms to exploit the technologie...
Exploring the effectiveness of research and innovation policies among European Union countries 2016 101 In this paper we explore the effectiveness of selected research and innovation policies among EU countries. Using data from the AEGIS database and information from the 2015 Bruegel’s Partnership report on research and innovation polices in EU countri...
Exploring the Impact of R&D on Patenting Activity in Small Women-Owned and Minority-Owned Entrepreneurial Firms. 2019 342 The relevant economics literature on the impact of R&D on patenting activity falls within two methodological areas of inquiry. The first area might be classified as a test of the Schumpeterian hypothesis. The second and lesser research area might be ...
External sources of technical knowledge 1987 47 This paper explores the degree to which firms rely on external sources of technical knowledge. The empirical results suggest that larger firms in more competitive markets rely relatively more on external sources.
Fathers’ patenting behavior and the propensity of offspring to patent: an intergenerational analysis 2013 59 In this paper we show that the patenting behavior of innovators is correlated with the patenting behavior of their fathers. Our argument for exploring this relationship stems from established theories of entrepreneurial behavior, specifically theorie...
Federal laboratories as research partners 1999 2888 Since the passage of the National Cooperative Research Act (NCRA) in 1984, nearly 600 formal research joint ventures (RJVs) have been filed with the U.S. Attorney General and the Federal Trade Commission. Researchers have documented this trend and ha...
Firm Size and Efficient Entrepreneurial Activity: A Reformulation of the Schumpeter Hypothesis. 1980 2966 This paper examines empirically the relationship between innovative activity, as measured by the rate of return to research-anddevelopment expenditures, and firm size using a sample of firms from tbe chemicals and allied products industry (SIC 28)...
Firm size and R&D spending: testing for functional form. 1988 1054 One of the most frequently investigated topics in the economics of technological change literature is the relationship between firm size and the corresponding level of R&D spending. Over more than three decades researchers have been examining numerou...
Firm size, university based research, and the returns to R&D 1990 79 This paper compares university-based research relationships between small and large firms as an explanation for the difference in innovative activity across firm sizes. We test the hypothesis that there are diseconomies of scale in producing innovati...
Fostering university-industry R&D collaborations in European Union countries 2014 101 This paper advances our understanding of university-industry research and development (R&D) collaborations. These strategic relationships are a dimension of entrepreneurial activity, and they are thus important drivers of economic growth and developm...
The fountain of knowledge: an epistemological perspective on the growth of U.S. SBIR-funded firms 2019 106 The premise of this paper is that a basis for firms receiving Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) research awards to develop commercializable technologies is not only their proposed creative ideas but also their endowment of attendant knowledge...
Frederic M. Scherer: Over a half century—and counting—of seminal scholarly contributions 2018 32 This introduction to the special issue of the Review of Industrial Organization in honor of Frederic M. Scherer provides an overview of his many seminal contributions to the scholarly literature about industrial organization, his enthusiastic service...
From discovery to commercialization: accretive intellectual property strategies among small, knowledge-based firms 2021 112 This paper explores the use of publications and patents and their covariates among small, knowledge-based firms pursuing technology commercialization. It does so through an empirical examination of 1180 small firms’ R&D projects, all of which were fu...
From integrating functions to integrating ideas 2016 10 Math was my thing. I was fortunate to go to a high school in Virginia that offered advanced courses in calculus and matrix algebra, and I did well in those classes. So, majoring in math at the University of Richmond seemed like the logical path to fo...
From laboratory to market: on the propensity of young inventors to form a new business 2012 1414 Many researchers have studied correlates of business formation. Through the case-based and statistical literature, several broad categories of influence on the entrepreneurial decision to start a new business have been identified. We contribute to th...
Gender and Entrepreneurship: An Annotated Bibliography 2016 44 Entrepreneurship, from a gender perspective, is not only an academic topic of growing interest but also a topic of policy importance across many nations. In an effort to describe the scope of scholarly inquiry into this topic, we have constructed an ...
The gender gap in federal and private support for entrepreneurship 2015 93 The role of gender in entrepreneurship has been thoroughly investigated. However, less is knownabout gender differences in access to private investment when attempting to develop a new technology. In this paper, we use data collected by the National ...
Generating science-based growth: an econometric analysis of the impact of organizational incentives on university-industry technology transfer. 2005 3786 In recent years, there has been a rapid rise in commercial knowledge transfers from universities to practitioners or university/industry technology transfer (UITT), via licensing agreements, research joint ventures, and startups. In a previous study ...
Going public with public money 2021 113 We analyze what we consider to be an unanticipated consequence of the SBIR program, namely, that firms, publicly funded through the SBIR program, are going public based on their new technology developed with support from the SBIR program. There is a ...
Governance mechanisms enabling inter-organizational adaptation: Lessons from grand challenge R&D programs 2020 89 From climate change to terrorism, the world is confronting complex, trans-national problems. As a contemporary response, governments and non-profit organizations have established grand challenge programs, consisting of multi-sector research and devel...
Government as entrepreneur: Evaluating the commercialization success of SBIR projects. 2010 3860 Thinking of government as entrepreneur is a unique lens through which to view a subset of government actions. The lens is not a template for an evaluation of government policy; rather, it is a characterization that underscores the government's purpos...
The Growth of Research Triangle Park 2003 18 In light of the history of Research Triangle Park, we develop an analytical model to characterize the Park's growth. The model is based on the hypothesis that the Park's growth can be thought of as the adoption of an innovation, where the innovation ...
The growth of US science and technology parks: does proximity to a university matter? 2017 27 In this paper, we present a generalized model of US university science and technology parks, and we identify covariates that might serve as target variables not only to perpetuate the growth of existing parks but also to provide information for those...
Historical Perspectives on the Entrepreneur. 2006 15840 This survey establishes a chronological trace of the entrepreneur as treated in economic literature in order to give a more wholesome perspective to contemporary writings and teachings on entrepreneurship. The authors review the historical nature ...
How flexible manufacturing systems affect tooling and machining enterprises 1994 42 This paper presents the empirical results from an extensive study of the use of elements of flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) by enterprises in the US tooling and machining industry. Important managerial implications regarding the use of FMS techn...
Ideation, entrepreneurship, and innovation 2017 89 In this his paper I discuss the origins of ideas starting with Locke. I do this to motivate the question: Why do scholars of entrepreneurship, innovation, and enterprise dynamics need to know about the sources of ideas that lead to new technology and...
The impact of market structure on wages, fringe benefits, and turnover. 1983 2704 This paper examines the relationship between labor compensation and the structure of the product market, which is measured by the industry concentration ratio and by dummy variables for the existence and type of government regulation. Unlike previ...
The impact of public investment in medical imaging technology: an interagency collaboration in evaluation 2015 76 The Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI) and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) allied to analyze the impact of their investments in medical imaging research. The CFI funds capital and operating programs for research infrastructure, ...
The impact of public R&D investments on patenting activity: technology transfer at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2018 330 This paper presents estimates of the impact of public R&D on patenting activity at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Using a time series of public sector agency data, we estimate the per-capita R&D elasticity of new patent applications ...
The impact of the third sector of R&D on the innovative performance of entrepreneurial firms 2021 80 Entrepreneurial firms that rely on public research institutes, the third sector of R&D, are also firms that are more innovative in terms of introducing new or significantly improved goods or services to the market. This finding is based on an analysi...
In search of the meaning of entrepreneurship 1989 121 This paper is an attempt to build a bridge between the popular and the academic usage of the terms entrepreneur and entrepreneurship, and to identify the raw materials needed to construct an interpretive framework capable of illuminating the nature o...
The Induce versus Purchase Decision: An Empirical Analysis of Industrial R&D 1983 51 With the recent slowdown in productivity growth within the economy, R&D has come under scrutiny as a policy target variable. If such targeting is to be effective, it must be realized that not all innovations employed within a firm are induced by the ...
Information About Information: Public Investments in Information Retrieval Research. 2011 1265 Information retrieval (IR) is the science and practice of matching information seekers with the information being sought. Research on IR focuses on improving the effectiveness and efficiency of retrieval techniques and evaluating competing retrieval ...
Innovation by design 2019 24 In this paper, links between creativity, design, and innovation are explored through the literature specific to the textile and apparel industries. We discuss the ways that the apparel industry embodies entrepreneurial innovation through creativity a...
Innovation capital 2018 27 In this paper we compare the relationship between a firm’s innovation capital and the likelihood that a firm will commercialize an invention. Our index of innovation capital is the product of the firm’s human capital, social capital, and reputational...
Innovation Policy in Search of an Economic Foundation: The Case of Research Partnerships in the United States 2003 78 Research partnerships are not a new organizational form, but since the mid 1980s the US government, like other national governments, has provided a favorable environment for them to flourish. The purpose of this paper is to address the question: What...
Innovation versus imitation: investigating alternative R & D strategies 1986 45 Few topics in industrial organization have received as much attention- theoretical, empirical or policy-related-as has the relationship between market structure, firm size and innovative activity. Two issues have been addressed. First, is it the poss...
Innovative activity and gender dynamics 2021 43 We explore the innovative performance of firms resulting from their Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) research-funded projects in terms of the gender dynamics of the firms. Using commercialization as the relevant performance metric, ...
Innovative behavior in small-sized firms 1991 72 This study compares aspects of innovative behavior among small-sized firms. The behavior considered is the acquisition of technical knowledge in the development of new products and production processes, the adoption of new production process technolo...
Intellectual property protection mechanisms in research partnerships. 2006 2856 A set of US-based companies is investigated regarding the effectiveness of intellectual property protection mechanisms (IPPMs) in the formation of research partnerships. Patents are the most frequently used IPPM to protect both background and foregro...
Inter-firm technology flows and productivity growth 1983 34 Technologies enter a firm as the result of its own R&D activity and through such channels as the licensing of others' technologies or the purchasing of never vintages of capital. The empirical evidences reported here suggests that both sources are im...
Investments in R&D and innovative behavior: an exploratory cross-country study 2021 63 The relationship between investments in research and development (R&D) and innovative behavior, measured in terms of new products or services being delivered to the market, is well documented in the literature. This paper departs from the extant lite...
Knowledge begets knowledge: university knowledge spillovers and the output of scientific papers from U.S. Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects 2019 336 Scientific papers submitted for publication from U.S. Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)-funded research projects are an innovative output that has yet to be studied systematically. Using a knowledge production framework, we identify empirical...
Knowledge spillovers, collective entrepreneurship, and economic growth: the role of universities 2013 1791 To improve our understanding of the role that universities play in facilitating the transmission of knowledge to private-sector business enterprises so as to generate economic growth, this article builds on the Knowledge Spillover Theory of Entrepren...
Knowledge Transfers from Federally Supported R&D 2020 90 The purpose of this paper is to identify covariates with publication activity, a form of knowledge transfer, from SBIR publicly funded research. The paper offers an argument about the policy relevance of studying knowledge transfers from publicly fun...
Labor union effects on innovative activity 1987 77 Union rent-seeking is considered a tax on firm returns from investments in innovative activity. We examine this proposition by considering the responses of firms in a 1985 survey on R&D and product innovation. Consistent with our model, we find that ...
Leveraging entrepreneurship through private investments: Does gender matter? 2013 1677 Using project data from a random sample of Phase II research awards from the National Institutes of Health SBIR program, we estimate the relative probability that woman-owned firms are able to attract private investments to fund the transition of the...
Making sense of the elusive paradigm of entrepreneurship 2015 135 The term “entrepreneurship” apparently means different things to different people including scholars and thought leaders. Because entrepreneurship is multifaceted, it is studied from many different perspectives, yet, that has fostered a multitude of ...
Market structure and voluntary product standards 1983 24 A voluntary standard is an agreement intended to facilitate communication within an industry. Specifically, it is a technical document to describe design, material, processing, safety or performance characteristics of a product (US Federal Trade Comm...
Measuring the unmeasurable: Cost-benefit analysis for new business start-ups and scientific research transfers 1997 68 Public laboratories frequently need to assess the economic impacts of two common types of technology transfers: new business start-ups and scientific research transfers. However, it is quite difficult to measure economic impacts for these two kinds o...
Models and Methods of University Technology Transfer 2013 11 This monograph argues that a linear model of technology transfer is no longer sufficient, or perhaps even no longer relevant, to account for the nuances and complexities of the technology transfer process that characterizes the ongoing commercializat...
A note on the diffusion of flexible manufacturing systems technology 1994 61 This paper examines the pattern of diffusion of flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) technology across firms in the U.S. tooling and machining industry. Evidence is presented regarding the importance of compatibility standards in determining the timi...
An oasis of knowledge: the early history of Gateway University Research Park 2019 59 In this paper, we chronicle the early history of the development of the Gateway University Research Park at the North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University and at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. We document the institut...
On the classification of industrial R & D 1996 69 There is a long history of debate about the appropriateness of the National Science Foundation's classification of industrial R&D into the categories of basic research, applied research, and development. This paper presents empirical evidence that th...
On the economic impact of university proof of concept centers 2015 121 University proof of concept centers (PoCCs) are an organizational innovation intended to improve the dissemination and commercialization of new knowledge. During the past 15 years, at least 32 university-affiliated PoCCs have been established at univ...
On the economic performance of nascent entrepreneurs 2016 55 This paper assesses the R&D performance of nascent and established technology-based small firms that receive a Phase II R&D award from the U.S. Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Our empirical analysis is based on a two-stage selectio...
On the efficiency of federal R&D spending: A public choice approach 1977 68 Technical knowledge is the product of innovation and innovation the result of R&D. If technical knowledge is considered a public good, then public sector participation should be evaluated in terms of efficiency characteristics. Generally, the supply ...
On the failure of scientific research: an analysis of SBIR projects funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health 2017 106 The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program is the primary source of public funding in the United States for research by small firms on new technologies, and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is a major contributor to that funding age...
On the Growth of European Apparel Firms 2014 99 According to the European Skills Council, the apparel industry is experiencing a renaissance in countries throughout the European Union, and this renaissance is marked by innovation and technical development among small firms. In this paper, the AEGI...
On the growth of Korean technoparks 2018 124 The Republic of Korea undertook a major initiative in the early 1970s to integrate high-technology industry with its regional development strategy. This effort involved three phases: the development of science towns in the 1970s, the initiation of a ...
On the growth of U.S. science parks 2003 13 Science parks were first established in the United States in the 1950s. They have been widely touted as a potentially important source of technological spillovers and economic growth—regional economic growth in particular (Audretsch, 2001). Given the...
On the R&D/Marketing interface in knowledge intensive entrepreneurial firms 2017 104 In this paper we focus on the performance impact associated with whether R&D or marketing takes the lead in product innovations and/or product development. We examine empirically the performance of a sample of entrepreneurial firms across 10 European...
On the social value of quality: An economic evaluation of the Baldrige Performance Excellence Program. 2012 1766 This study estimates the net social value of the Baldrige Performance Excellence Program. It focuses specifically on a survey population of 273 applicants for the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award since 2006. Using a counterfactual evaluation m...
On the Transfer of Technology from Universities: The Impact of the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980 on the Institutionalization of University Research 2019 196 While the academic and policy literature has focused on patent counts and patent quality as possible outcome measures to evaluate the impact of the U.S. Bayh–Dole Act of 1980, we argue that the impact of the Act on university effort to transfer its t...
Opening the ivory tower's door: An analysis of the determinants of the formation of U.S. university spin-off companies. 2005 3798 This paper presents findings from an analysis of the determinants of the formation of university spin-off companies within the university's research park. We find that university spin-off companies are a greater proportion of the companies in older p...
Organizational structure and R&D efficiency 1986 53 This paper compares innovative efficiency as proxied by a measure of R&D efficiency, between firms with organic and mechanistic R&D organizational structures. The results of the study support the hypotheses that organic structures experience greater ...
Private equity and the innovation strategies of entrepreneurial firms: Empirical evidence from the Small Business Innovation Research Program 2014 73 There is great interest in evaluating the impact of private equity investments on innovation and economic growth. However, there is no direct empirical evidence on the effects of such transactions on the innovation strategies of entrepreneurial firms...
Private Investor Participation and Commercialization Rates for Government-Sponsored Research and Development: Would a Prediction Market Improve the Performance of the SBIR Programme? 2009 1564 An objective of the US Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) programme is the private sector commercialization of funded R&D projects. However, our estimate of the actual or expected probability of commercialization of such R&D is fairly low; our...
Privatization, bureaucracy, and risk aversion 1993 2527 The role of governmental risk aversion in the decision to privatize the production of goods and services has not been examined closely. Using a model of a risk-averse, single-service Niskanen bureaucrat, we determine the conditions under which a bure...
Productivity growth, environmental regulations and the composition of R&D. 1982 1608 The average annual rate of productivity growth in the United States has fallen since the mid-1960s. One factor often cited for this trend is the slowdown in the level of R&D spending. In considering this factor, many researchers have examined the c...
Proof of Concept Centers in the United States: an exploratory look 2013 86 In this paper we identify the population of 32 US university-related Proof of Concept Centers (PoCCs), and we present a model of technology development that identifies the economic role of PoCCs within that model. We examine the broad technology tran...
Propensity to patent and firm size for small R&D-intensive firms 2018 78 The Schumpeterian hypothesis about the effect of firm size on research and development (R&D) output is studied for a sample of R&D projects for R&D-intensive firms that are small but have substantial variance in their sizes. Across the distribution o...
Public gains from entrepreneurial research: Inferences about the economic value of public support of the Small Business Innovation Research program. 2012 1411 This article presents a systematic analysis of the net economic benefits associated with the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. We offer a derivation of producer and consumer surplus to estimate economic benefits. Fundamental to the i...
Public knowledge, private knowledge: the intellectual capital of entrepreneurs. 2011 1612 This paper focuses on the innovative actions of entrepreneurs, namely their tendency to reveal the intellectual capital that results from their research efforts either in the form of public knowledge (publications) or private knowledge (patents). Usi...
Public R&D subsidies, outside private support, and employment growth 2013 81 In the aftermath of the passage of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the employment effects of public subsidies have been scrutinized because of new emphasis on public accountability and transparency. In this paper, we investigate c...
Public science and public innovation: Assessing the relationship between patenting at U.S. National Laboratories and the Bayh-Dole Act. 2011 2145 Most studies of the effects of the Bayh-Dole Act have focused on universities. In contrast, we analyze patenting activity at two prominent national laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories and the National Institute of Standards and Technology befo...
A public sector knowledge production function 2019 336 There are no studies of the R&D-to-patenting relationship at the federal agency level. We estimate a public sector knowledge production function using federal agency patent application data over the years 2003 through 2014. We find that the patent ap...
Public support for private R&D: The case of the research tax credit 1985 63 The U.S. government has long included in its tax code various special provisions designed to stimulate industrial R&D. In 1981, those provisions were substantially augmented by a special R&D tax credit, and various proposals are now under considerati...
Public-sector entrepreneurship 2018 133 We define public-sector entrepreneurship as having three distinct components: actions that are innovative, that transform a status quo social and economic environment, and that are characterized by uncertainty. While the literature on public-sector e...
Public/private partnerships in the United States 1999 73 As greater attention is given to public support of private-sector R&D, it becomes imperative for policy makers to be able to offer an economic rationale for publicly-supported partnerships as well as a means for evaluating such relationships. This pa...
Public/private partnerships: stimulating competition in a dynamic market. 2001 1457 This paper sets forth a public/private partnership competition policy that mitigates the appropriability problems associated with innovation that occur in a dynamic market when competitive pressures are present. We illustrate the applicability of our...
Public/private technology partnerships: evaluating SBIR-supported research. 2002 1460 This paper evaluates public support of private-sector research and development (R&D) through the Department of Defense’s (DoD’s), Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. Based on alternative evaluation methods applicable to survey data and...
R&D patterns in the video display terminal industry 1984 58 A long-standing question asks whether small firms or large firms are more successful in product innovation, and the answer seems to be coming up, “It depends.” Professors Link and Zmud reveal some of the things it depends on when they describe the re...
Rates of Induced Technology from Investments in Research and Development 1978 1348 Research and development encompasses a myriad of activities. Generally, "research" is defined as the primary search for technical or scientific advancement, and "development" refers to the translation of these advancements into product or process inn...
Regional Appropriation of University-Based Knowledge and Technology for Economic Development 2013 1357 Economic development practitioners and scholars recognize the link between universities and regional economic development. It is predicated on the spillover of knowledge from universities to commercialization. The literature has focused on the supply...
The regional economic impacts of university research and science parks 2020 112 This paper focuses on the regional economic impacts of US university research and science parks. Motivating this focus is the fact that the landscape for private-sector research is changing, and future research might well emphasize America’s “new geo...
Research Joint Ventures in the United States: A Descriptive Analysis 2005 43 This paper describes trends and characteristics of the membership of RJVs in the United States.
Research joint ventures: Patterns from Federal Register filings 1996 68 The National Cooperative Research Act of 1984 was passed to encourage the formation of research joint ventures (RJVs). Since its passage, the majority of research on RJV activity has been theoretical, focusing on the private profitability and social ...
Research partnerships. 2000 3837 This paper synthesizes the academic, professional, and policy literature on research partnerships with an eye toward technology policy. Based on available theory and empirical investigations, there are a variety of important reasons why firms partici...
Research risk and public policy in a knowledge-based economy: the relative research efficiency of government versus university labs 2014 1368 This paper contributes to the burgeoning literature about the knowledge economy by addressing the question of which intellectual-based institutions in an economy contribute the greatest amount to economic growth. In particular, we posit a theoretical...
The returns to R&D: Division of Policy Research and Analysis at the National Science Foundation 2014 89 The US National Science Foundation’s (NSF’s) Division of Policy Research and Analysis (PRA) supported academic research related to, among many other things, measurement of the returns to private and public R&D, during the early 1980s. The findings fr...
Science and technology parks: an annotated and analytical literature review 2017 41 This paper summarizes the extant literature on science and technology parks in an effort to provide a foundation to stimulate additional research in this globally important topic. We find from our review of published scholarship over the past 30 year...
Scientific publications at U.S. federal research laboratories 2021 84 In this paper, we focus on scientific publications as an innovative output from the research efforts at U.S. federal laboratories. The data used relate to Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs). The relationship between R&D expend...
The simple economics of basic scientific research: A test of Nelson's diversification hypothesis 1981 57 Although risk is associated with all forms of research and development (R&D) activity, uncertainty is an inherent characteristic of basic research-defined as original investigation for the advancement of scientific knowledge that does not have a spec...
The Small Business Innovation Research Program 2012 1246 The Small Business Innovation Development Act of 1982 created the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program to stimulate technological innovation, to use small businesses of 500 or fewer employees to meet federal R&D needs, to foster and enco...
Sources of knowledge used by entrepreneurial firms in the European high-tech sector 2018 73 The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between an entrepreneur’s experience and education and his/her reliance on alternative sources of knowledge for exploring new business opportunities. The extant literature that is at the crossr...
Standards and the diffusion of advanced technologies 1988 50 There is a long history in the United States of public policy initiatives directed toward the creation of new technology, but very few efforts have been supported to increase the rate of diffusion of these technologies. Given the importance of more r...
The structure and performance of U.S. research joint ventures: inferences and implications from the Advanced Technology Program 2018 58 Research joint ventures (RJVs) are projects that combine the research resources of different firms. A sample of RJVs supported by the U.S. Advanced Technology Program shows that the projects yield revenues that are far less than costs. Related to thi...
Tax incentives for R&D: a critical evaluation 1984 63 A number of policy proposals have recently been presented that seek to address the problem of declining productivity growth. Many of these are aimed at encouraging private R&D spending through tax incentives. This paper first reviews some of these pr...
Tax policies affecting R&D: an international comparison 1993 2954 As more and more emphasis is being given to the role of government in supporting innovation-related activity, a clearer understanding of the historical intent of R&D-related tax policies (by far the most common mechanism for support of R&D) and of th...
Technological change in the production of new scientific knowledge: a second look 2021 82 This paper presents and explains an approach for measuring technological change in the production of new scientific knowledge. The paper expands our previous work on this topic. Our approach is illustrated by using as an example new scientific journa...
Technology infrastructure: Introduction to the special issue. 2008 1543 Technology infrastructure supports the design, deployment and use of both individual technology-based components and the systems of such components that form the knowledge-based economy. As such, it plays a central role in the innovation process and ...
Technology transfer at the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology 2019 73 This article analyzes the interrelationship among technology transfer mechanisms using data specific to the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). An overview of the history of NIST and US policies that emphasize the economic impor...
Technology-based state growth policies: the case of North Carolina’s Green Business Fund 2015 88 US technology-based initiatives at the state level continue to emphasize regional economic development and job growth. Many are now also focused on green technologies. This paper describes one such green program, the North Carolina Green Business Fun...
A theoretical analysis of the role of social networks in entrepreneurship 2014 1690 Entrepreneurship involves innovation and uncertainty. We outline a theory of entrepreneurship, which highlights the importance of social networks in promoting innovation and reducing uncertainty. Our findings suggest that this “social” aspect of entr...
A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of the Decision to Locate on a University Research Park 2008 2342 University research parks constitute a potentially important mechanism for university technology transfer and regional economic development. Unfortunately, there is little theoretical and empirical evidence on the firm-level choice decision to locate...
A time allocation study of university faculty. 2008 5346 Many previous time allocation studies treat work as a single activity and examine trade-offs between work and other activities. This paper investigates the at-work allocation of time among teaching, research, grant writing and service by science and ...
Toward an assessment of impacts from US technology and innovation policies 2015 87 Five important policy initiatives were promulgated in response to the slowdown in US productivity in the early 1970s, and then again in the late 1970s and early 1980s. These initiatives included the Bayh–Dole Act of 1980, the Stevenson–Wydler Act of ...
Toward an assessment of the US Small Business Innovation Research Program at the National Institutes of Health 2018 103 The Small Business Innovation Development Act of 1982, which established the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program, is arguably the hallmark policy initiative in USA to support technology development and commercialization in small firms. ...
Toward a model of the effective transfer of scientific knowledge from academicians to practitioners: qualitative evidence from the commercialization of university technologies 2004 5826 A new organizational entity has emerged at research universities: the technology transfer office (TTO). TTOs were established to facilitate commercial knowledge transfers from universities to practitioners or university/industry technology transfer (...
Toward a theory of the entrepreneurial process 2015 1729 This paper models the entrepreneurial process as both creation and discovery composed of an iterative two-step process where entrepreneurs create social networks based on subjective expectations about the future effectiveness of those networks, and t...
Transmission of Risk-Averse Behavior in Small Firms 2004 2325 Small-sized firms are typically more entrepreneurial and engage in more innovation and risk-taking behavior. For that reason they are considered the engines of future economic growth. One policy for stimulating such activity is to provide government ...
U.S. federal laboratories and their research partners: a quantitative case study 2018 13 The Stevenson–Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 made explicit the technology transfer responsibilities of U.S. Federal laboratories. The Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 and the National Competitiveness Technology Transfer Act of 1989 f...
U.S. Research Joint Ventures with International Partners 2013 1351 In the United States, as in most industrialized nations, aggregate technological advancement declined during the 1970s and early 1980s. The U.S. Congress was quick to respond to this down turn by passing a number of technology- and innovation-related...
U.S. science parks: the diffusion of an innovation and its effects on the academic missions of universities. 2003 2579 The paper is an exploratory study of science parks in the United States. It models the history of science parks as the diffusion of an innovation that was adopted at a rapid and increasing rate in the early 1980s, and since then at a decreased rate. ...
U.S. University Research Parks 2006 90 University research parks are important as a mechanism for the transfer of academic research findings, as a source of knowledge spillovers, and as a catalyst for national and regional economic growth. We develop a model to describe the growth, or pro...
Under the AEGIS of knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship: employment growth and gender of founders among European firms 2018 114 An increasing number of theoretical and empirical analyses address the role of innovation as one of the main sources of firm growth. More recently, studies have looked at the role of gender diversity as a possible determinant of innovation and entrep...
Unions and technology adoption: A qualitative analysis of the use of real-time control systems in U.S. coal firms. 2002 2037 In recent decades, many manufacturing firms have adopted new technologies, such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), computer numerical control (CNC), and just-in-time production (JIT) systems. Implementation of these d...
Unions, productivity, and productivity growth 1984 30 An important recent development has been the emergence of a body of literature by Harvard economists emphasizing a collective voice/institutional response (CV/IR) view of unionism. Possibly the most controversial aspect of this literature (hereafter,...
Universities as partners in U.S. research joint ventures. 2005 2823 This paper investigates the conditions when a research joint venture (RJV) will involve a university as a research partner. We hypothesize that larger RJVs are more likely to invite a university to join the venture as a research partner than smaller ...
Universities as research partners in publicly supported entrepreneurial firms. 2012 1799 Partnerships between universities and industrial firms can play a key role in enhancing competitiveness because they provide a conduit for the spillover of knowledge from the academic organization where knowledge is created to the firm where it is tr...
Universities as Research Partners. 2003 1096 Universities are a key institution in the U.S. innovation system, and an important aspect of their involvement is the role they play in public-private partnerships. This note offers insights into the performance of industry-university research par...
The US Display Consortium: Analysis of a Public/Private Partnership 1998 68 This paper analyses the US response to Japanese and wider East Asian leadership in advanced flat panel displays, focusing in particular on the formation of the US Display Consortium. The paper discusses the circumstances in which the consortium was f...
The use of literature-based innovation output indicators for research evaluation 1995 50 This paper discusses the appropriateness of literature-based innovation output indicators in the evaluation arena, and it sets forth criteria against which to judge such appropriateness.
Valuing an entrepreneurial enterprise 2012 86 This article focuses on valuation issues and methods that are related to a closely held entrepreneurial enterprise. This focus is motivated by the fact that the number of small, closely held business start-ups, which we refer to broadly by the term “...
Why are governmental R&D and private R&D complements? (research and development). 1991 2366 It is well known that governmental R&D and private R&D have complementary relationship. However, no previous study has provided an explanation for why that complementary relationship exists. This paper argues that infratechnology is the critical link...
Women in science: An exploratory analysis of trends in the United States 1999 52 The number and percentage of degrees awarded to women by US academic institutions has increased since 1996. This paper explores three economic factors associated with these observed trends: the establishment and growth of public policies designed and...
Worker response to a menu of implicit contracts. 1982 1425 The literature on implicit contracts between workers and firms suggests that workers face a variety of such contracts, allowing each to choose the optimal trade-off between earnings level and earnings stability. This study tests some implications ...