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The effect of a high dairy diet, dairy supplementation, and resistance exercise on increasing lean body mass and decreasing fat mass in overweight women.

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
David Travis Thomas (Creator)
Institution
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
Web Site: http://library.uncg.edu/
Advisor
Cheryl Lovelady

Abstract: Previous reports suggest that high dairy calcium diets help augment total and regional fat loss in obese women. Other reports suggest that timed protein ingestion before and after resistance exercise can augment lean body mass as a result of resistance training. The objective of this study was to examine both the calcium/fat loss and the protein supplement hypothesis in overweight women with chronic low calcium diets who participated in a resistance training program with calorie restriction. Participants (age = 36.6 ± 4.7; African American 57.7%, White 30.8%, 11.5% other) with a BMI of 29.1 ± 2.2 kg/m² were randomized to low calcium (LC) (= 500 mg; n=13) or high calcium (HC) (=1200 mg; n=13) and yogurt (YOG) or control (CONT) supplements. All participants received reduced calorie (250 kcal deficit) diets. Six dietary recalls were obtained by a multi-pass approach provided by Nutrition Data System software. Body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, waist circumference, and sagittal diameter. Participants completed 16 weeks of whole body resistance training three times per week. Mean weight loss in the total sample trended toward significance (1.9 kg; p = 0.06) and corresponded to significant caloric reduction from baseline (p = 0.001). The prescribed mean calcium intake was achieved for each study group (LC = 469.0 ± 148.3 and HC = 1297.0 ± 181.5 mg) with no significant changes in protein intake over time (LC = 0.92 and HC = 1.02 g/kg, p = 0.21). Fat mass index (LC = 12.3 to 11.0 and HC = 13.0 to12.2 fat kg/m²), trunk fat (LC = 1.74 to 1.54 and HC = 1.68 to 1.55 kg), waist circumference (LC = 88.4 to 85.0 and HC 84.6 to 82.3 cm), and sagittal diameter (LC = 27.1 to 25.8 and HC = 25.6 to 24.4 cm) all significantly decreased over time (p = 0.05) with no group differences (p = 0.37). Total lean change (YOG = 0.9 ± 1.3 and CONT = 1.1 ± 1.0) increased significantly over time (p = 0.001) but not by group. These data suggest that high dairy calcium diets and pre/post-yogurt supplementation offer no added benefit in reducing fat or increasing lean indices when combined with resistance training and caloric restriction.

Additional Information

Publication
Dissertation
Language: English
Date: 2009
Keywords
Composition, Dairy, Exercise, Protein, Resistance, Women
Subjects
Isometric exercise $x Health aspects.
Dairy products in human nutrition.
Women $x Nutrition.
Women $x Health and hygiene.
Body composition.