Jeremy W. Bray

  • Professor and Department Head
  • Economics, UNCG
  • jwbray@uncg.edu
  • 336-334-3910
  • PO Box 26170
  • Greensboro NC 27402-6170

Jeremy Bray is Professor and Head of the Department of Economics in the Bryan School of Business and Economics at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. His research focuses on two primary areas of interest: the economics of substance abuse and mental health and the economic evaluation of behavioral health interventions. In his work on the economics of substance abuse and mental health, Dr. Bray has examined the labor market effects of substance use, abuse, and dependence and has studied the role of prices and taxes in consumers’ choices regarding alcohol, tobacco, and drug use. In his research on the cost-effectiveness of behavioral health interventions, Dr. Bray has estimated the costs and effectiveness of employee assistance program (EAP) services, screening and brief intervention (SBI) programs, behavioral and pharmacological therapies for alcohol dependence, and workplace prevention, early intervention, and wellness programs. Dr. Bray was the project director of the national, cross-site evaluation of the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment’s (CSAT) Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) grant program. He is a principal investigator of the data and methodological coordinating center for the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development’s Work, Family, and Health Network. Dr. Bray is an assistant editor for Addiction and has published his research findings in peer-reviewed journals, including Medical Care, Journal of Labor Economics, Journal of Health Economics, Labour Economics, Public Health Reports, Health Economics, and Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research.

There are 77 included publications by Jeremy W. Bray :

TitleDateViewsBrief Description
Alcohol drinking patterns and health care utilization in a managed care organization 2004 845 Objective. To estimate the relationship between current drinking patterns and health care utilization over the previous two years in a managed care organization (MCO) among individuals who were screened for their alcohol use.Study Design. Three prima...
Alcohol screening and brief intervention in emergency departments: Review of the impact on healthcare costs and utilization 2020 5 Purpose: To review the published evidence of the impact of alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI) delivered in emergency departments (EDs) on healthcare utilization and costs. Principal results: This scoping review used existing literature re...
Alcohol use and the wage returns to education and work experience 2018 9 Despite a widely held belief that alcohol use should negatively impact wages, much of the literature on the topic suggests a positive relationship between nonproblematic alcohol use and wages. Studies on the effect of alcohol use on educational attai...
Alcohol use and wages: New results from the national household survey on drug abuse 1998 2630 A recent study published in the Journal of Health Economics by French and Zarkin [French, M.T., Zarkin, G.A., 1995. Is moderate alcohol use related to wages? Evidence from four worksites, Journal of Health Economics 14, 319–344] found evidence of a p...
Alcohol Use, Human Capital, and Wages 2005 2322 This article develops and estimates a model of wage determination that isolates the effects of alcohol use on wages as mediated through human capital accumulation. Although generally insignificant, estimation results suggest that moderate alcohol use...
Analyzing Data from Nonrandomized Group Studies 2008 1524 Researchers evaluating prevention and early intervention programs must often rely on diverse study designs that assign groups to various study conditions (e.g., intervention versus control). Although the strongest designs randomly assign these groups...
Association Between the Characteristics of Organizations and Their Profile of Performance Against Quality Benchmarks for Workplace Health Promotion 2020 337 Objective: This study explored subgroups of performance profiles measured by organizations’ Well Workplace Checklist (WWC) benchmark scores and examined company characteristics associated with performance subgroups. Methods: The sample included 3728 ...
Brief interventions for at-risk drinking: Patient outcomes and cost-effectiveness in managed care organizations 2006 1231 Aims: Evaluate effectiveness and costs of brief interventions for patients screening positive for at-risk drinking in managed health care organizations (MCOs). Methods: A pre-post, quasi-experimental, multi-site evaluation conducted at 15 clinic site...
Can a flexibility/support initiative reduce turnover intentions and exits? Results from the work, family, and health network 2017 5 We draw on panel data from a randomized field experiment to assess the effects of a flexibility/supervisor support initiative called STAR on turnover intentions and voluntary turnover among professional technical workers in a large firm. An unanticip...
Conducting economic evaluations of screening and brief intervention for hazardous drinking: Methods and evidence to date for informing policy 2010 519 Issues. Many policy review articles have concluded that alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI) is both cost-effective and cost-beneficial. Yet a recent cost-effectiveness review for the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Clini...
Correlates of In-Store Promotions for Beer: Differential Effects of Market and Product Characteristics 2007 884 Objective: We estimated the strength and direction of the association between product characteristics (beer type, package size, and brand name) and market-area socioeconomic characteristics, and promoted sales of beer in grocery stores. Method: Super...
Cost and Cost-effectiveness of the COMBINE Study in Alcohol-Dependent Patients 2008 1026 The COMBINE (Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Intervention) clinical trial recently evaluated the efficacy of medications, behavioral therapies, and their combinations for the outpatient treatment of alcohol dependence. The costs and cost-ef...
Cost methodology of COMBINE 2005 652 Objective: This article describes the methodology used in estimating the mean cost per patient of the interventions delivered in COMBINE, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing pharmacotherapies and behavioral interventions for outpatient trea...
The Cost of Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) 1996 4894 Despite the increasing prevalence of Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs), few studies have examined the cost of these programs. This paper presents consistent and comparable cost data from case studies of EAPs at seven worksites. Because the same dat...
Cost of employee assistance programs: Comparisons of national estimates from 1993 and 1995 1999 825 The cost and financing of mental health services is gaining increasing importance with the spread of managed care and cost-cutting measures throughout the health care system. The delivery of mental health services through structured employee assistan...
The cost of screening and brief intervention in employee assistance programs 2012 844 Few studies examine the costs of conducting screening and brief intervention (SBI) in settings outside health care. This study addresses this gap in knowledge by examining the employer-incurred costs of SBI in an employee assistance program (EAP) whe...
Cost of screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment in health care settings 2016 10 Aims: This study analyzed service unit and annual costs of substance abuse screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) programs implemented in emergency department (ED), inpatient, and outpatient medical settings in three U.S. st...
Cost to conduct screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) in healthcare settings 2013 837 From International Network on Brief Interventions for Alcohol and Other Drugs (INEBRIA) Meeting 2013 Rome, Italy. 18-20 September 2013.
The Cost-Effectiveness of Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) in Emergency and Outpatient Medical Settings 2015 2633 ObjectiveThis study analyzed the cost-effectiveness of delivering alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) in emergency departments (ED) when compared to outpatient medical settings.MethodsA probabilistic decision anal...
The costs of screening and brief intervention for risky alcohol use 2003 603 Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate provider-incurred costs of alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI) for risky drinking as implemented in four managed care organizations (MCOs) participating in the Cutting Back project imple...
Costs of a work-family intervention: Evidence from the work, family, and health network 2014 5 Purpose. To estimate the cost to the workplace of implementing initiatives to reduce work-family conflict. Design. Prospective cost analysis conducted alongside a group-randomized multisite controlled experimental study, using a microcosting approach...
The differential effects of alcohol consumption and dependence on adverse alcohol-related consequences: Implications for the workforce. 1998 1083 Previous literature has supported the hypothesis that high rates of alcohol consumption are associated with adverse social consequences and that dependence on alcohol has an effect on that relationship. The purpose of this paper is to further specify...
Disconnected geography: A spatial analysis of disconnected youth in the United States 2016 18 Since the Great Recession, US policy and advocacy groups have sought to better understand its effect on a group of especially vulnerable young adults who are not enrolled in school or training programs and not participating in the labor market, so ca...
Do Treatment Services for Drug Users in Outpatient Drug-Free Treatment Programs Affect Employment and Crime? 2007 1088 Using the 1992–1995 National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study data, we employ principal components analysis to create treatment service factors based on both patient self-reports and treatment record extracts. We included these factors in multi...
Dynamic entrepreneurship: On the performance of U.S. research joint ventures 2017 72 In this paper, we present descriptive findings on the research success of U.S. research joint ventures (RJVs). Using survey-based data of a sample of U.S. RJVs, we build on the theory of dynamic entrepreneurship to develop an empirical model of cross...
Economic evaluation of alcoholism treatment 2006 622 Rising health care costs in recent years have increased pressures on providers, insurers, and policymakers to monitor the costs, cost-effectiveness, and cost–benefit of all health care services, including alcohol-related services. Without solid infor...
The effect of Employee Assistance Programs use on healthcare utilization 2000 1584 Objective. To estimate the effect of Employee Assistance Program (EAP) use on healthcare utilization as measured by health claims. Data Sources. A unique data set that combines individual-level information on EAP utilization, demographic information,...
The effect of an enhanced employee assistance program (EAP) intervention on EAP utilization 2001 850 Objective: An enhanced employee assistance program (EAP) intervention was developed that delivers comprehensive EAP outreach services to all employees who may have alcohol-related and other workplace problems; standard EAP materials traditionally tar...
The effect of treatment completion and length of stay on employment and crime in outpatient drug-free treatment 2002 1445 Length of stay in treatment has been found to be a significant predictor of positive post-treatment outcomes, such as decreases in unemployment and crime. However, length of stay may be an incomplete predictor of successful treatment. Surprisingly, f...
Effects of a flexibility/support intervention on work performance: Evidence from the Work, Family, and Health Network 2018 6 Purpose: To estimate the effects of a workplace initiative to reduce work–family conflict on employee performance. Design: A group-randomized multisite controlled experimental study with longitudinal follow-up. Setting: An information technology firm...
The effects of prices and policies on the demand for marijuana: Evidence from the national household surveys on drug abuse 1999 1504 Recent studies have shown that efforts to curb alcohol use by increasing the price of alcohol and limiting youth's access have succeeded, but they may have had the unintended consequence of increasing marijuana use. This possibility is troubling in l...
Evaluating web-based training for employee assistance program counselors on the use of screening and brief intervention for at-risk alcohol use 2009 1256 This article assesses a Web-based training for Employee Assistance Program (EAP) counselors on screening and brief intervention (SBI) for at-risk alcohol use. The training had four learning objectives: (1) increase counselors' awareness and sense of ...
Evaluation of alcohol taxes as a public health opportunity to reduce liver transplant listings for alcohol-related liver disease 2020 3 Background: Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is a leading indication for liver transplantation. Methods: State consumption of spirits, wine, and beer was determined from published sources. Excise and ad valorem alcohol taxes of spirits, wine, and ...
An exploratory cost-effectiveness analysis of the connected health intervention to improve care for people with dementia: A simulation analysis 2018 9 Many people with dementia live in the community; thus, supporting informal caregivers is critical. The Connected Health intervention facilitates collection and sharing of patient data among informal caregivers and providers to identify emerging patie...
Health behavior among men with multiple family roles: The moderating effects of perceived partner relationship quality 2018 3 Men in the United States are increasingly involved in their children’s lives and currently represent 40% of informal caregivers to dependent relatives or friends aged 18 years and older. Yet much more is known about the health effects of varying fami...
Health-related quality of life of alcohol use disorder with co-occurring conditions in the US population 2021 3 Background: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) commonly co-occurs with other health conditions or other substance use, complicating our understanding of the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of AUD. We described the HRQoL of alcohol use disorder in the ...
Healthcare Utilization of Individuals with Opiate Use Disorders: An Analysis of Integrated Medicaid and State Mental Health/Substance Abuse Agency Data 2008 879 Data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s Integrated Database (IDB) were used to examine the service use patterns of individuals with possible opiate use disorders in Washington State. Results indicate that regardless ...
Implementation costs of screening and brief intervention for illicit drug use 2013 420 From International Network on Brief Interventions for Alcohol and Other Drugs (INEBRIA) Meeting 2013 Rome, Italy. 18-20 September 2013.
Implementation science on the margins: How do we demonstrate the value of implementation strategies? 2020 4 Implementation science (IS) has developed as a field to assess effective ways to implement and disseminate evidence-based practices. Although the size and rigor of the field has improved, the economic evaluation of implementation strategies has lagge...
The influence of state-level policy environments on the activation of the Medicaid SBIRT reimbursement codes 2017 3 Aims: To examine how institutional constraints, comprising federal actions and states’ substance abuse policy environments, influence states’ decisions to activate Medicaid reimbursement codes for screening and brief intervention for risky substance ...
The joint demand for cigarettes and marijuana: Evidence from the national household surveys on drug abuse 2001 1715 Recent studies have shown that efforts to curb youths’ alcohol use, such as increasing the price of alcohol or limiting youths’ access, have succeeded but may have had the unintended consequence of increasing marijuana use. This possibility is troubl...
Joint utility estimators in substance use disorders 2017 8 Background: Although co-occurring conditions are common with substance use disorders (SUDs), estimation methods for joint health state utilities have not yet been tested in this context. Objectives: To compare joint health state utility estimators in...
Latent variable models of alcohol-related constructs 1996 914 This study examines the improvement in validity coefficients and structural relationships derived from formally modeling latent variables of adverse alcohol-related constructs. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis of responses from 8, 755 partic...
Measuring benefits of opioid misuse treatment for economic evaluation: health-related quality of life of opioid-dependent individuals and their spouses as assessed by a sample of the US population 2016 7 Aims: To understand how the general public views the quality of life effects of opioid misuse and opioid use disorder on an individual and his/her spouse, measured in terms used in economic evaluations. Design: Cross-sectional internet survey of a US...
Measuring economic outcomes of alcohol treatment using the economic form 90 2007 1200 Objective: This article assesses the ability of the economic outcome measures in the Economic Form 90 to detect differences across levels of alcohol dependence as measured by the Alcohol Dependence Scale. Method: We used baseline data from the Combin...
Mental health and substance abuse treatment utilization among individuals served by multiple public agencies in three states 2005 529 Patterns of mental health (MH) and substance abuse (SA) treatment utilization among populations receiving services through multiple public programs are not well known. This study examines to what extent populations with MH and/or SA conditions utiliz...
A multinomial logit analysis of the influence of policy variables and board experience on FOMC voting behavior 1997 1042 Previous studies have used probit or logit models to analyze two states of monetary policy (tighter or looser). In this paper we employ multinominal logit to permit Federal Reserve monetary policy to assume one of three alternative states (tighter, l...
On the failure of scientific research: an analysis of SBIR projects funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health 2017 106 The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program is the primary source of public funding in the United States for research by small firms on new technologies, and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is a major contributor to that funding age...
The ‘Outcome Reporting in Brief Intervention Trials: Alcohol’ (ORBITAL) framework: protocol to determine a core outcome set for efficacy and effectiveness trials of alcohol screening and brief intervention 2017 151 [2017-2018 UNCG University Libraries Open Access Publishing Fund Grant Winner.]
Background:The evidence base to assess the efficacy and effectiveness of alcohol brief interventions (ABI) is weakened by variation in the outcomes measured and by inc...
Prescription Drug Abuse and Workplace Absenteeism: Evidence from the 2008 2012 National Survey o n Drug Use and Health 2015 185 Prescription drug abuse has become increasingly prevalent in recent years, yet little is known about its impact on workplaces. This study investigated the relation between self-reported misuse of prescription pain relievers and other drugs and self-r...
Prevalence and consequences of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use at five worksites 1995 776 EMPLOYERS ARE BECOMING increasingly concerned about the consequences and costs of substance use in their workplaces. Despite this heightened awareness, little information is available to guide them in setting up worksite-based prevention and assistan...
Prevalence and Costs of Major Depression Among Elderly Claimants With Diabetes 2003 971 OBJECTIVE—To compare the odds of major depression among Medicare claimants with and without diabetes and to test whether annual medical payments are greater for those with both diabetes and major depression than for those with diabetes alone. RESEARC...
Program-and service-level costs of seven screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment programs 2014 9 This paper examines the costs of delivering screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) services within the first seven demonstration programs funded by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Service-le...
Psychosocial workplace factors and healthcare utilization: A study of two employers 2018 5 Background: While a large literature links psychosocial workplace factors with health and health behaviors, there is very little work connecting psychosocial workplace factors to healthcare utilization. Methods: Survey data were collected from two di...
Quality of life as an outcome of opioid use disorder treatment: A systematic review 2017 10 Background and aims: The recent opioid epidemic has prompted renewed interest in opioid use disorder treatment, but there is little evidence regarding health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) outcomes in treatment programs. Measuring HRQoL represents a...
The relationship between drug use and labor supply for young men 1998 1009 This paper examines the relationship between young men's hours worked and their use of marijuana, alcohol, cigarettes, cocaine, and other drugs using cross-section data from the 1991 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA), a nationally repre...
The relationship between end-of-treatment alcohol use and subsequent healthcare costs: Do heavy drinking days predict higher healthcare costs? 2016 13 Background: A challenge for evaluating alcohol treatment efficacy is determining what constitutes a “good” outcome or meaningful improvement. Abstinence at the end of treatment is an unambiguously good outcome; however, a focus on abstinence ignores ...
The relationship between marijuana initiation and dropping out of high school 2000 5696 The prevalence of marijuana use among young people has risen rapidly in recent years, causing concern over the potential impact on academic performance of such use. While recent studies have examined the effect of alcohol use on educational attainmen...
The relative impact of brief treatment versus brief intervention in primary health-care screening programs for substance use disorders 2017 18 Aims: To assess the relative impact of brief treatment (BT) compared with brief intervention (BI) on changes in substance use behavior in primary care screening programs for substance use disorders, overall and by patient severity. Design and partici...
The response by adults to increases in cigarette prices by sociodemographic characteristics 2001 2138 Cigarette excise taxes are widely viewed by health economists as an effective tool to reduce cigarette consumption. However, those opposed to increasing cigarette excise taxes often state that the taxes unfairly target certain segments of the populat...
Response to increases in cigarette prices by race/ethnicity, income, and age groups—United States, 1976–1993 1998 1408 No abstract provided.
Return on Investment of a Work–Family Intervention: Evidence From the Work, Family, and Health Network 2015 1128 Objective: To estimate the return on investment (ROI) of a workplace initiative to reduce work–family conflict in a group-randomized 18-month field experiment in an information technology firm in the United States.Methods: Intervention resources were...
Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT): rationale, program overview and cross-site evaluation 2017 14 Aims: Since 2003, the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (SAMHSA, CSAT) has awarded 32 Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) grants to states, territories and t...
Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment: implications of SAMHSA's SBIRT initiative for substance abuse policy and practice 2017 10 Aims: This paper describes the major findings and public health implications of a cross-site evaluation of a national Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) demonstration program funded by the US Substance Abuse and Mental He...
Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT): Toward a Public Health Approach to the Management of Substance Abuse 2007 3391 Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is a comprehensive and integrated approach to the delivery of early intervention and treatment services through universal screening for persons with substance use disorders and those at...
SF-6D utility scores for alcohol use disorder status and alcohol consumption risk levels in the US population 2021 3 Aims: To estimate US population health utilities for subgroups defined by alcohol use disorder (AUD) status and consumption level. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Community settings in the United States (i.e. excluding institutional settings...
Short term health-related quality of life improvement during opioid agonist treatment 2015 6 Background: Opioid dependence is associated with high levels of morbidity, yet sparse data exists regarding the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of individuals with opioid dependence, particularly following treatment initiation. To inform cost-...
Substance use outcomes of patients served by a large US implementation of Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) 2017 12 Aims: To estimate changes in the substance use behaviors of patients who received services as part of the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) grant pr...
Sustaining SBIRT in the wild: simulating revenues and costs for Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment programs 2017 13 Aims: To examine the conditions under which Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) programs can be sustained by health insurance payments. Design: A mathematical model was used to estimate the number of patients needed for re...
Symptoms of dependence, multiple substance use, and labor market outcomes 2000 1175 The prevalence and costs of alcohol and drug disorders pose a serious social concern for policymakers. In this paper, we use data from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) to estimate simple descriptive statistics and analysis of vari...
A systematic review and meta-analysis of health care utilization outcomes in alcohol screening and brief intervention trials 2011 1397 Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the effect of screening and brief intervention (SBI) on outpatient, emergency department (ED), and inpatient health care utilization outcomes. Much of the current literature speculates that...
A time and motion study of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment implementation in health-care settings 2017 13 Aims: Screening and brief intervention for harmful substance use in medical settings is being promoted heavily in the United States. To justify service provision fiscally, the field needs accurate estimates of the number and type of staff required to...
A time-in-motion study of screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) implementation in healthcare settings 2013 698 From International Network on Brief Interventions for Alcohol and Other Drugs (INEBRIA) Meeting 2013 Rome, Italy. 18-20 September 2013.
Tracking changes in U.S. organizations’ workplace health promotion initiatives: A longitudinal analysis of performance against quality benchmarks 2019 457 Purpose: To examine changes in organizations’ workplace health promotion (WHP) initiatives over time associated with repeated self-assessment using the Well Workplace Checklist (WWC). Design: Well Workplace Checklist data include a convenience sample...
Treatment patterns and distribution of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in treatment-eligible U.S. adults 1998 1140 To estimate the fraction of United States (U.S.) adults who are eligible for treatment to reduce elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels based on Adult Treatment Panel II (ATP II) guidelines and the percent reduction in LDL choleste...
A two-arm parallel-group individually randomised prison pilot study of a male remand alcohol intervention for self-efficacy enhancement: The APPRAISE study protocol 2021 4 Introduction: The prevalence of at-risk drinking is far higher among those in contact with the criminal justice system (73%) than the general population (35%). However, there is little evidence on the effectiveness of alcohol brief interventions (ABI...
You save money when you buy in bulk: Does volume-based pricing cause people to buy more beer? 2009 1561 This paper uses supermarket scanner data to estimate brand- and packaging-specific own- and cross-price elasticities for beer. We find that brand- and packaging-specific beer sales are highly price elastic. Cross-price elasticity estimates suggest th...