|Donor Determined Intergovernmental Grants Structure
||The lack of simple language to describe the structure of intergovernmental grant programs and a failure to recognize that such programs are chosen by legislators whose preferences differ from those of recipients has led o an inability to develop a th...
|The effects of governmental financing on firms' R&D activities: a theoretical and empirical investigation
||There is a long history of governmental support for private innovative activity in the U.S.A. However, the economic research on this topic has been narrow in focus, emphasizing primarily the relationship between the level of governmental R&D and the ...
|Familiarity and Group Productivity
||The effects of familiarity on group productivity were examined. Familiarity refers to the specific knowledge workers have of their jobs, co-workers, and work environment. In this study of coal-mining crews, absenteeism led to staffing changes that af...
|Federal laboratories as research partners
||Since the passage of the National Cooperative Research Act (NCRA) in 1984, nearly 600 formal research joint ventures (RJVs) have been filed with the U.S. Attorney General and the Federal Trade Commission. Researchers have documented this trend and ha...
|Intergovernmental grants and successful tax limitation referenda
||Analyses of fiscal limitation referenda have typically ignored the role of institutional structure in referenda outcomes. This article demonstrates the importance of such structure through the investigation of intergovernmental grants in a model of f...
|Knowledge spillovers, collective entrepreneurship, and economic growth: the role of universities
||To improve our understanding of the role that universities play in facilitating the transmission of knowledge to private-sector business enterprises so as to generate economic growth, this article builds on the Knowledge Spillover Theory of Entrepren...
|Legal constraints and the choice of educational grant structures
||Recent empirical work suggests that legal constraints are significant in choosing state educational grant structures. Unfortunately, the literature has not taken such constraints into account, thus calling into question particular grant structure rec...
|Modified Quadratic Hill-Climbing with SAS /IML
||This article describes EZClimb, a set of SAS/IML steps useful in solving numerical optimization problems. The program uses the method of modified quadratic hill-climbing with either analytical or numerical derivatives to maximize a user-defined crite...
|Privatization, bureaucracy, and risk aversion
||The role of governmental risk aversion in the decision to privatize the production of goods and services has not been examined closely. Using a model of a risk-averse, single-service Niskanen bureaucrat, we determine the conditions under which a bure...
|Regional Appropriation of University-Based Knowledge and Technology for Economic Development
||Economic development practitioners and scholars recognize the link between universities and regional economic development. It is predicated on the spillover of knowledge from universities to commercialization. The literature has focused on the supply...
|Research risk and public policy in a knowledge-based economy: the relative research efficiency of government versus university labs
||This paper contributes to the burgeoning literature about the knowledge economy by addressing the question of which intellectual-based institutions in an economy contribute the greatest amount to economic growth. In particular, we posit a theoretical...
|Tax policies affecting R&D: an international comparison
||As more and more emphasis is being given to the role of government in supporting innovation-related activity, a clearer understanding of the historical intent of R&D-related tax policies (by far the most common mechanism for support of R&D) and of th...
|A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of the Decision to Locate on a University Research Park
||University research parks constitute a potentially important mechanism for university technology transfer and regional economic development. Unfortunately, there is little theoretical and empirical evidence on the firm-level choice decision to locate...
|To Admit or Not to Admit: The Question of Research Park Size.
||A theoretical model is used to explore the determinants of the optimum size of a private research park and the effect of university affiliation on that optimum size. Parks are assumed to operate as cooperatives where costs are equally shared among th...
|Toward a theory of the entrepreneurial process
||This paper models the entrepreneurial process as both creation and discovery composed of an iterative two-step process where entrepreneurs create social networks based on subjective expectations about the future effectiveness of those networks, and t...
|Transmission of Risk-Averse Behavior in Small Firms
||Small-sized firms are typically more entrepreneurial and engage in more innovation and risk-taking behavior. For that reason they are considered the engines of future economic growth. One policy for stimulating such activity is to provide government ...
|Universities as research partners in publicly supported entrepreneurial firms.
||Partnerships between universities and industrial firms can play a key role in enhancing competitiveness because they provide a conduit for the spillover of knowledge from the academic organization where knowledge is created to the firm where it is tr...
|Why are governmental R&D and private R&D complements? (research and development).
||It is well known that governmental R&D and private R&D have complementary relationship. However, no previous study has provided an explanation for why that complementary relationship exists. This paper argues that infratechnology is the critical link...