|Allometric growth of the flowers of five genera of the Marantaceae and of Canna (Cannaceae)
||Allometry was used to compare differential growth of the floral organs in seven species of the Marantaceae and in Canna indica. Different relative sizes of the floral parts arose through changes in the allometric growth rates, not by extension or tru...
|Atlas of Stem Anatomy in Herbs, Shrubs and Trees (Review).
||This remarkable book is the first of two volumes
that represent the fruit over 40 years work by Fritz Schweingruber on the stem anatomy of dicotyledonous herbs, shrubs and trees. It represents a monumental effort to document stem
anatomy across a w...
|Calcium distribution and function during anther development of Torenia fournieri (Linderniaceae)
||Potassium antimonite was used to locate calcium in the anthers of Torenia fournieri (Linderniaceae). Abundant calcium precipitates accumulate in the microsporocyte cytoplasm. After meiosis, calcium precipitates are abundant on the microspore wall, as...
|Calcium distribution and function in the glandular trichomes of Lavandula pinnata L
||Calcium distribution during peltate and capitate glandular trichome development in Lavandula pinnata L. was examined with the potassium antimonate precipitation method. In order to establish a role for calcium in the secretory process and elucidate c...
|The Capitate and Peltate Glandular Trichomes of Lavandula pinnata L. (Lamiaceae): Histochemistry, Ultrastructure and Secretion
||The morphology, histochemistry, and ultrastructural aspects of the secretion of Lavandula pinnata L. (Lamiaceae) glandular trichomes were studied in order to prepare for work on calcium distribution in normal and heat stressed plants. The secretory p...
|Character description in phylogenetic analysis: insights from Agnes Arber's concept of the plant
||Throughout her work Agnes Arber argues for an inclusive, synthetic concept of the vascular plant as `consisting of a unification of every phase of its existence'. Her view of the leaf as a partial-shoot reflects this unification by relating the part ...
|Characters as Groups: A New Approach to Morphological Characters in Phylogenetic Analysis
||A new method for working with morphological characters is described and explored in experiments using human participants. The method uses direct comparison and sorting of images to produce hierarchical character-cladograms. A character-cladogram is a...
|Complex Data Produce Better Characters
||Abstract: Two studies were conducted to explore the use of complex data in character description and hybrid identification. In order to determine if complex data allow the production of better characters, eight groups of plant systematists were given...
|Digital plant images as specimens: Toward standards for photographing living plants
||Although specimens in natural history collections have traditionally been limited to physical objects, sets of images can serve many of the purposes of specimens if the images are collected in an appropriate manner. Image specimen sets should include...
|Effect of heat shock on ultrastructure and calcium distribution in Lavandula pinnata L. glandular trichomes.
||The effects of heat shock (HS) on the ultrastructure and calcium distribution of Lavandula pinnata secretory trichomes are examined using transmission electron microscopy and potassium antimonate precipitation. After 48-h HS at 40°C, plastids become ...
|Epi- illumination microscopy coupled to in situ hybridization and its utility in the study of evolution and development in non-model species
||Evolutionary developmental biology often combines methods for examining morphology (e.g., scanning electron microscopy, SEM) with analyses of gene expression (e.g., RNA in situ hybridization). Due to differences in tissue preparation for SEM and gene...
|Floral organogenesis in five genera of the Marantaceae and in Canna (Cannaceae)
||The paired flowers of all species of the Marantaceae studied, except Monotagma plurispicatum, are produced through the division of an apical meristem with a tunica-corpus structure. The solitary flowers of M. plurispicatum develop from a similar meri...
|Foliar, non-structural nectaries in the Marantaceae.
||Nonstructural, foliar nectaries have been found in two genera of the Marantaceae (Zingiberales). Two nectaries are located on each leaf, at the junction of the leaf sheath and petiole. Externally, they nary be readily distinguished front the surround...
|A holistic aesthetic for science.
||All scientific work takes place within a community of specialists who define what types of studies, evidence and modes of presentation are accepted as valid. A number of factors influence these decisions. Among them are tacit assumptions hidden in th...
|Homeosis in the flowers of the Zingiberales
||Homeosis has played an important role in the evolution of the flowers of the Zingiberales, especially those of the Ginger Group. In the Zingiberaceae, two members of the outer androecial whorl are replaced by a lip, and two members of the inner andro...
|Homoplasy, Pollination, and Emerging Complexity During the Evolution of Floral Development in the Tropical Gingers (Zingiberales)
||With their impressive array of floral diversity and a largely-understood phylogenetic relationships, the Zingiberales provide an ideal model clade to test for the roles of genetic and ecological factors driving floral diversification. Many Zingiberal...
|Image Quiz: Using principles of cognitive psychology to teach visual expertise
||Image Quiz is a cross-platform set of computer programs designed to help users efficiently become visual experts. Unlike novices, visual experts are able to quickly recognize patterns. This allows chess masters to recognize chess configurations and b...
|Image Use in Field Guides and Identification Keys: Review and Recommendations
||Background and aims. Although illustrations have played an important role in identification keys and guides since the 18th century, their use has varied widely. Some keys lack all illustrations, while others are heavily illustrated. Even within illus...
|In vitro organogenesis and plant regeneration from leaves of Solanum candidum Lindl., S. quitoense Lam. (Naranjilla) and S. sessiliflorum Dunal
||Adventitious shoots and roots were regenerated from leaf segments of 3 Solanum species: S. candidum Lindl., S. quitoense Lam. and S. sessiliflorum Dunal. Leaf explants differentiated shoots on modified MS medium supplemented with 23-163 µm kinetin an...
|Inflorescence and Floral development in Orchidantha maxillarioides (Lowiaceae).
||The inflorescence of Orchidantha maxillarioides is similar to a richly branched, polytelic truncate synflorescence. It consists of two to three paracladia borne in the axils of the uppermost phyllomes of the shoot. Each paracladium consists of six br...
|Inflorescence and flower development in Costus scaber (Costaceae)
||The inflorescence of Costus scaber terminates an erect axis of a sympodial rhizome system. Primary bracts are borne on the inflorescence in spiral monostichous phyllotaxy. One-flowered cincinni occur in the axils of these bracts. Each cincinnus consi...
|Inflorescence and flower development in the Hedychieae (Zingiberaceae): Hedychium
||Flower organogenesis in Hedychium gardnerianum and Hedychium coronarium begins with the sequential formation of the sepals on a rounded—triangular apex. Growth in three regions of the apex, inside the sepals, produces three coamon petal — inner andro...
|Inflorescence and flower development in the Hedychieae (Zingiberaceae): Scaphochlamys kunstleri (Baker) Holttum
||Primary inflorescence bracts are initiated in a spiral phyllotactic pattern on the flanks of the inflorescence apex. A cincinnus primordium forms in the axil of each primary bract. A prophyll is initiated in the transverse plane and later extends aro...
|Inflorescence structure and development in the Zingiberales: Thalia geniculata (Marantaceae)
||The inflorescence of Thalia geniculata is among the most complex in a family characterized by complex inflorescences. The main axis of the inflorescence bears primary bracts which subtend either enriching branches, in the enriching zone, or pairs of ...
|Initiation and structure of the secondary vascular system in Phytolacca dioica L. (Phytolaccaceae)
||Phytolacca dioica (L.) is characterized by anomalous secondary thickening by means of supernumerary cambia. After a period of primary growth and the formation of an initial (normal) vascular cambium, supernumerary cambia are initiated outside of the ...
|Lamina architecture and anatomy in the Heliconiaceae and Musaceae (Zingiberales)
||Lamina size, thickness, venation, and anatomy are studied in 15 species of Heliconia (Heliconiaceae), 3 species of Musa, and 1 of Ensete (Musaceae). The most typical laminas of these genera are large and oblong and have an acute or irregular apex and...
|Microsporogenesis and male gametogenesis in Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae)
||Microsporogenesis and male gametogenesis of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) was studied in order to provide additional data on this poorly studied family. Male flowers of J. curcas have ten stamens, which each bear four microsporangia. The develop...
|A New Type of Image-Based Key
||Keys are character based tools for plant
identification. They are based on the decomposition of the plant into very small, atomistic parts. These parts are described with the technical and often arcane terminology of plant taxonomy. Even the best el...
|On the relationship between phyllotaxy and vasculature
||There is a definite relationship between the phyllotactic fraction and the sympodia uniting median leaf traces in a stem. The denominator of the phyllotactic fraction is the number of sympodia in the -stem, and the numerator is the -number of sympodi...
|Optimizing Learning of Scientific Category Knowledge in the Classroom: The Case of Plant Identification
||Learning to identify organisms is extraordinarily difficult, yet trained field biologists can quickly and easily identify organisms at a glance. They do this without recourse to the use of traditional characters or identification devices. Achieving t...
|Ovary structure and anatomy in the Heliconiaceae and Musaceae (Zingiberales)
||Ovary anatomy and organography was investigated in five species of Heliconia (Heliconiaceae) and three species of Musa (Musaceae). The ovaries of both genera may be longitudinally divided into three regions: sublocular, locular, and prolongation. The...
|Ovary structure in the Costaceae (Zingiberales)
||The morphology and histology of the ovary is investigated in four species representing the four genera of the family Costaceae. Only one species of Costus has been investigated prior to this study. The present study identifies new characters and conf...
|Paedomorphosis, Secondary Woodiness, and Insular Woodiness in Plants.
||The related concepts of paedomorphosis in the secondary xylem, insular woodiness, and secondary woodiness are reviewed and evaluated in order to clearly distinguish the phenomenon involved, and provide a firm foundation for future research in this ar...
|Palynological characters and their systematic significance in Naucleeae (Cinchonoideae, Rubiaceae)
||Phylogenetic studies have improved Naucleeae classification, but the relationships among the subtribes remain largely unresolved. This can be explained by the inadequate number of synapomorphies shared among these lineages. Of the 49 morphological ch...
|The phyllotaxy of Costus (Costaceae)
||The spiromonostichous phyllotaxy of Costus, and other Costaceae, is characterized by low divergence angles, often as low as (30°—) 50°. This constrasts with the main series Fibonacci (divergence angles ap-proximating 137.5°) or distichous phyllotaxy ...
|Plant Structure Ontology: How to label plant structures with doubtful or mixed identities?
||This paper discusses problems with labelling plant structures in the context of attempts to create a unified Plant Structure Ontology. Special attention is given to structures with mixed, or doubtful identities that are difficult or even impossible t...
|Pollen morphology and ultrastructure of selected species of Magnoliaceae
||The pollen morphology and ultrastructure of 20 species, representing eight genera of the Magnoliaceae are described based on observations with light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The family represents a homogeneous group from a poll...
|Presence of the protruding oncus is affected by developmental stage and acetolysis technique.
||A protruding oncus is a projection of the intine in the aperture region. The ubiquitous use of acetolysis in palynological research has led to the presence of a protruding oncus being underreported. Controlled experiments with pollen samples collecte...
|The primary vascular system and medullary bundle structure of Phytolacca dioica L. (Phytolaccaceae)
||Phytolacca dioica has a primary vascular system which includes medullary bundles. The primary structure of these bundles is composite, consisting of two to four collateral vascular strands with their phloem poles oriented toward a common center. A ca...
|Principles of visual key construction?with a visual identification key to the Fagaceae of the southeastern United States
||Background and aims. Advances in digital imaging have made possible the creation of completely visual keys. By a visual key we mean a key based primarily on images, and that contains a minimal amount of text. Characters in visual keys are visually, n...
|Reproductive morphology of Sargentodoxa cuneata (Lardizabalaceae) and its systematic implications.
||The reproductive morphology of Sargentodoxa cuneata (Oliv) Rehd. et Wils. is investigated through field, herbarium, and laboratory observations. Sargentodoxa may be either dioecious or monoecious. The functionally unisexual flowers are morphologicall...
|Shape matters: Hofmeister’s rule, primordium shape and flower orientation
||Hofmeister’s rule is an empirical heuristic derived from the observation that new leaf primordia are formed in the largest space between the existing flanks of the older primordia. These observations have been repeatedly validated in studies of leaf ...