Jennifer L. Etnier

Jennifer Etnier is a professor of sport and exercise psychology in the Department of Kinesiology at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Dr. Etnier completed her Bachelor’s degree in computer science and mathematics at the University of Tennessee, her Master’s degree in exercise and sport science at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and her Ph.D. in sport and exercise psychology at Arizona State University. Dr. Etnier was an assistant professor at Wake Forest University from 1995-1998. She then returned to Arizona State University in 1998 as an assistant professor and was promoted to associate professor in 2004. Dr. Etnier came to the University of North Carolina at Greensboro in 2004. Dr. Etnier's research interests lie in the field of Exercise Psychology. Her primary research focus is in the area of physical activity and cognition. In particular, Dr. Etnier is interested in the potential benefits of physical activity for the slowing of age-related cognitive decline and for the prevention of dementia. Dr. Etnier is also pursuing research related to the potential benefits of physical activity for ADHD children, the benefits of a single bout of exercise for cognition, and the benefits of chronic physical activity in chronically ill populations (i.e., fibromyalgia syndrome, Celiac’s disease patients).

There are 56 included publications by Jennifer L. Etnier :

TitleDateViewsBrief Description
Acute exercise and cognitive function: Emerging research issues 2015 103 The effect of acute exercise, a single bout of exercise, on cognitive performance has attracted much attention. The first narrative review of this literature was conducted by Tomporowski and Ellis.1 In their summary, the authors concluded that acute ...
Attentional patterns of horseshoe pitchers at two levels of task difficulty 2001 21 In a dual-task paradigm, two tasks are performed concomitantly, and their performance is assessed relative to the performance of each task individually. The decline in performance that occurs during dual performance has been attributed to the limits ...
Behavioral interventions to benefit cognition: intervenciones cognitivas para beneficiar la cognición 2015 685 With the growing population of older adults, the identification of treatment strategies to prevent or ameliorate age-related cognitive decline has been an important topic in recent years. After reviewing cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimenta...
Beyond health messaging: a behavioural economics approach to increasing self-selected distance during an acute bout of cycling 2018 7 The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of the perceived purpose of exercising on the self-selected distance peddled during an acute cycling task. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups (health, wealth, charity). All ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a potential mechanism of the effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance 2015 1850 The literature shows that improvements in cognitive performance may be observed following anacute bout of exercise. However, evidence in support of the biological mechanisms of this effectis still limited. Findings from both rodent and human studies ...
Caloric restriction, physical activity, and cognitive performance: A review of evidence and a discussion of the potential mediators of BDNF and TrkB 2016 37 Lifestyle behaviours, such as eating and physical activity (PA), have been recognised as factors that may influence age-related cognitive decline. A high-fat diet and sedentary behaviour have been associated with poor cognitive performance in a varie...
Changes in electroencephalographic activity associated with learning a novel motor task 1996 22 This study was designed to examine changes in EEG activity associated with the learning of a novel task. Right-handed adults (N = 61) were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Subjects' EEG was recorded at 10 sites. Subjects' perform...
Chronic exercise and cognitive function: An update of current findings 2019 12 It has long been known that regular participation in exercise, also known as chronic exercise, has beneficial effects on multiple aspects of physical and mental health. In more recent years, the positive effects of chronic exercise on cognitive funct...
Cognitive performance in older women relative to ApoE-e4 genotype and aerobic fitness 2007 24 Introduction: Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype and aerobic fitness are each associated with cognitive performance in older adults. However, their potentially interactive effects on cognitive performance have not been examined. Purpose: The primary pu...
Combined effects of physical activity and obesity on cognitive function: Independent, overlapping, moderator, and mediator models 2017 53 This article reviews studies on physical activity, obesity, and cognition to explore how physical activity and obesity may work independently or together in affecting cognitive function. In particular, we propose six hypotheses derived from four conc...
A comprehensive review of health benefits of Qigong and Tai Chi 2010 61 Objective. Research examining psychological and physiological benefits of Qigong and Tai Chi is growing rapidly. The many practices described as Qigong or Tai Chi have similar theoretical roots, proposed mechanisms of action, and expected benefits. R...
Dose-response and mechanistic issues in the resistance training and affect relationship 2005 58 The purpose of this study was to examine the dose-response gradient of exercise-induced affective change and the role of the stress response as a contributing mechanism. Male and female participants (N = 31) completed three different resistance train...
Dose-response relationship between exercise duration and executive function in older adults 2018 15 This study aimed to determine the dose-response relationship between exercise duration and task switching in older adults. Acute moderate intensity aerobic exercise for 20 min resulted in shorter response times than control and 10-min sessions in the...
Dose–response relation between exercise duration and cognition 2015 2047 Purpose: The study aimed to provide evidence-based recommendations for the prescription of a single session of exercise to improve cognitive performance. In particular, the purpose was to determine the dose–response relation between exercise duration...
Effect of acute aerobic exercise on cognitive performance: Role of cardiovascular fitness 2014 4631 Objectives: To determine whether fitness and cognitive task type moderate the relationship between acute exercise and cognition. Methods: Thirty-six healthy college-aged adults completed a maximal graded exercise test and were categorized as low, mod...
The effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance in children with and without ADHD 2015 2530 Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder that affects approximately 11% of children in the United States. Research supports that a single session of exercise benefits cognitive performance by children...
The effect of acute exercise on encoding and consolidation of long-term memory 2018 97 Evidence supports that acute exercise benefits long-term memory. However, it is unclear whether these effects are due to benefits to encoding or consolidation. The purpose of this study was to more effectively isolate encoding and consolidation to ad...
The effect of physical activity on executive function: A brief commentary on definitions, measurement issues, and the current state of the literature 2009 45 The purpose of the present commentary is to introduce relevant issues with respect to the measurement of executive function in physical activity studies. Suggested definitions of executive function are introduced, and executive function tasks that ar...
Effects of an acute bout of exercise on cognitive aspects of Stroop performance 2006 180 Recent reviews of the literature have demonstrated that exercise has a positive impact on cognitive performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on executive functioning in college-age adults. F...
Effects of an acute bout of exercise on memory in 6th grade children 2014 2646 Research supports the positive effects of exercise on cognitive performance by children. However, a limited number of studies have explored the effects specifically on memory. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an acute bout of e...
Effects of an acute bout of localized resistance exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults: A randomized controlled trial 2009 106 Objectives. To examine the effect of an acute bout of resistance exercise on cognitive performance in healthy middle-aged adults. Design. A randomized controlled trial design. Methods. Forty-one adults (Mage = 49.10 years, SD = 8.73) were randomly as...
The effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance: A meta-analysis 2012 11280 There is a substantial body of literature related to the effects of a single session of exercise on cognitive performance. The premise underlying this research is that physiological changes in response to exercise have implications for cognitive func...
Effects of acute exercise on executive function: a study with a Tower of London Task 2011 1315 The purpose of this study is to extend the literature by examining the effects of an acute bout of moderate to vigorous intensity aerobic exercise on the executive functions of planning and problem solving assessed using a Tower of London Task (TOL T...
Effects of acute exercise on long-term memory 2011 4520 In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and ...
The effects of acute exercise on memory and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) 2016 172 Acute exercise benefits cognition, and some evidence suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in this effect. The purpose of this study was to explore the dose–response relationship between exercise intensity, memory, and B...
The effects of low-intensity cycling on cognitive performance following sleep deprivation 2017 50 This study examined the effect of 24 h of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance and assessed the effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance following sleep deprivation. Young, active, healthy adults (n = 24, 14 males) were randomized to c...
Effects of music and video on perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise 2016 42 Background: Dissociative attentional stimuli (e.g., music, video) are effective in decreasing ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during low-to-moderate intensity exercise, but have inconsistent results during exercise at higher intensity. The purpos...
Effects of physical activity interventions on cognitive and academic performance in children and adolescents: a novel combination of a systematic review and recommendations from an expert panel 2019 13 Objective: To summarise the current evidence on the effects of physical activity (PA) interventions on cognitive and academic performance in children, and formulate research priorities and recommendations. Design: Systematic review (following PRISMA ...
The effects of physical activity on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: The evidence 2011 4448 Evidence supports the beneficial effects of physical activity (PA) on cognitive performance and suggests that effects might be particularly large for children. However, limited research has explored PA as a means of managing behavioral symptoms and i...
Examining psychosocial correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in youth with and without HIV 2019 14 The objectives of this study were to examine differences in physical activity behaviors as a function of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status and sex, to test differences in physical activity self-efficacy (PASE), body weight satisfaction (BWS),...
Examining the time course of attention during golf putts of two different lengths in experienced golfers 2014 818 A dual-task paradigm was used to investigate the time course of attention during putting relative to task difficulty (6 ft vs. 12 ft). Putting performance and reaction time (RT) were measured while 20 experienced golfers responded verbally to an audi...
Examining the time course of attention in a soccer kick using a dual task paradigm 2013 1105 A dual-task paradigm was implemented using a repeated measures design to determine the time course of attention demands during performance of a soccer penalty kick. Experienced soccer players (N = 15) were asked to perform a 12-yard soccer-style pena...
Exercise, cognitive function, and the brain: Advancing our understanding of complex relationships 2019 43 In recent years, scientists have shown a growing interest in the relationship between exercise, cognitive function, and the brain. The growing body of evidence supporting positive relationships is evidenced by the first mention of the beneficial effe...
Exploring the dose-response relationship between resistance exercise intensity and cognitive function 2009 49 The purpose of this study was to explore the dose-response relationship between resistance exercise intensity and cognitive performance. Sixty-eight participants were randomly assigned into control, 40%, 70%, or 100% of 10-repetition maximal resistan...
Exploring the relationship between exercise-induced arousal and cognition using fractionated response time 2009 48 Although a generally positive effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance has been demonstrated, the specific nature of the relationship between exercise-induced arousal and cognitive performance remains unclear. This study was designed to iden...
An external focus of attention is effective for balance control when sleep-deprived 2018 51 The purpose of our study was to examine if the beneficial effects of an external focus are effective for balance control when sleep-deprived. Sleep-deprived participants (27 hours awake) completed three blocks of five separate 30 second trials on a d...
Fluid intelligence in an older COPD sample following short- or long-term exercise 2001 13 Purpose: Research supports an association between aerobic fitness and cognitive functioning in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, the impact of exercise intervention duration has not been satisfactorily examined. Therefor...
Free-throw shooting during dual-task performance: Implications for attentional demand and performance 2009 18 In this study, the dual-task paradigm was used to determine peak attentional demand during the free-throw process. Thirty participants completed 40 free-throw trials. The free throw was the primary task, but participants also verbally responded to a ...
Habitual physical activity mediates the acute exercise-induced modulation of anxiety-related amygdala functional connectivity 2019 23 Aerobic exercise, in relation to physical activity, has been shown to have beneficial effects on anxiety. However, the underlyig neural mechanism remains elusive. Using a within-subject crossover design, this fMRI study examined how exercise (12-min ...
The Immediate and Delayed Effects of an Acute Bout of Exercise on Cognitive Performance of Healthy Older Adults 2010 2014 Research on the acute effects of exercise on cognitive performance by older adults is limited by a focus on nonhealthy populations. Furthermore, the duration of cognitive improvements after exercise has not been examined. Thus, this study was designe...
The influence of physical fitness and exercise upon cognitive functioning: A meta-analysis 1997 69 Nearly 200 studies have examined the impact that either acute or long-term exercise has upon cognition. Subsets of these studies have been reviewed using the traditional narrative method, and the common conclusion has been that the results are mixed....
Innovative Research Exploring the Effects of Physical Activity and Genetics on Cognitive Performance in Community-Based Older Adults 2015 885 Physical activity is predictive of better cognitive performance and lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) is a susceptibility gene for AD with the e4 allele being associated with a greater risk of AD. Cross-sectiona...
A meta-regression to examine the relationship between aerobic fitness and cognitive performance 2006 103 Many studies have been conducted to test the potentially beneficial effects of physical activity on cognition. The results of meta-analytic reviews of this literature suggest that there is a positive association between participation in physical acti...
Motivating mature adults to be physically active 2017 58 As a population, middle-aged and older adults are not meeting national guidelines for exercise. The purpose of this study was to describe factors associated with exercise adherence in an 8-month program offered as part of a research study testing the...
Motor performance and motor learning as a function of age and fitness 1998 43 Past studies have shown that electroencephalographic alpha activity increases as people learn to perform a novel motor task. Additionally, it has been suggested that motor performance and learning decline as people age beyond 60 years, and it has bee...
Navigational aids and learner control in hypermedia instructional programs 1998 7 This study examined the effects of learner control and navigational aids on performance in a hypermedia instructional program. Results indicated that students who were permitted to move freely within the program and had access to navigational aids, i...
Parental perceptions of the effects of exercise on behavior in children and adolescents with ADHD 2014 1255 Background: Anecdotally, parents often report that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who engage in regular physical activity (PA) experience positive behavioral changes. The purpose of this study was to examine this anecdo...
The Physical Activity and Alzheimer's disease (PAAD) study: Cognitive outcomes 2018 55 Background: Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive disease that degrades cognitive functioning and ultimately results in death. Currently, there is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease and, hence, the identification of preventative strategies is important. ...
Physical Activity and Cognition in Older Adults: The Potential of Tai Chi Chuan 2010 1044 The purpose of this article is to review the potential of Tai Chi Chuan as a mode of physical activity that could have cognitive benefits for older adults and to provide potential directions for future research. A brief introduction to Tai Chi Chuan ...
Physical activity in the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease 2015 34 Alzheimer's disease is a chronic illness characterized by clinical cognitive impairment. A behavioral strategy that is being explored in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease is physical activity. Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) tes...
Physical activity, cognitive function and academic achievement in children: A systematic review 2016 33 Background: The relationship among physical activity (PA), fitness, cognitive function, and academic achievement in children is receiving considerable attention. The utility of PA to improve cognition and academic achievement is promising but uncerta...
Predicting cognitive performance from physical activity and fitness in adolescents and young adults in Botswana relative to HIV status 2019 20 Little is known about whether physical activity and fitness could enhance cognition in adolescents and young adults living with HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine this relationship in a group of 250 HIV+ (n?=?88) and HIV negative (n?=?162)...
The relationship between frontal brain asymmetry and exercise addiction 2009 15 Previous research on the causes of exercise addiction has focused primarily on the relationships among personality traits, social influences, and disordered eating (Bamber, Cockerill, & Carroll, 2000; Beals, 2004). Few studies, however, have examined...
The Relationship Between Physical Activity and Executive Function Performance in Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 2010 3827 Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) consistently perform worse on executive function (EF) tasks relative to those without AD/HD. Physical activity has a small effect on cognition in children and may be particularly benefici...
The relationships among pulmonary function, aerobic fitness, and cognitive functioning in older COPD patients 1999 24 Study objectives: To study the predictive relationships among age, pulmonary function, aerobic fitness, and cognition in people with COPD. Design: Observational study conducted during baseline testing with COPD patients who volunteered to participate...
Time course of attention and decision making during a volleyball setting task 2004 12 Attention is a term that has been used to describe a broad range of topics in the sport and exercise literature (Nougier, Stein, & Bonnel, 1991). Research focusing on attention has included studies on selectivity, concentration, mental set, visual se...