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Thomas R. Kwapil

Research Interests: Investigation of schizotypy and schizophrenia from experimental and developmental psychopathology perspectives. These studies focus on developing and testing symptom, trait, cognitive, biobehavioral, and genetic markers of schizophrenia and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. This program of research traces its roots back to Paul Meehl's landmark work on schizophrenia and schizotypy and to the pioneering work on psychosis proneness by the Chapmans. Specifically, this work focuses on identifying individuals who are at risk for developing schizophrenia or related conditions. Current projects involve cross-sectional and longitudinal studies with schizotypic young adults. Assessment of psychopathology in daily life. My laboratory coordinates the UNCG Center for the Assessment of Life Experiences. These studies examine the expression of cognition, affect, personality, and psychopathology in daily life using experience sampling methodology. Investigation of bipolar spectrum psychopathology. These studies focus on the examination of the development and expression of hyperthymia and bipolar-spectrum disorders.

There are 74 included publications by Thomas R. Kwapil :

TitleDateViewsBrief Description
Aberrant Asociality: How Individual Differences in Social Anhedonia Illuminate the Need to Belong 2011 743 The need to belong, a fundamental concept in psychology, organizes a wide range of findings in the study of interpersonal relationships. We suggest that human belongingness needs can be illuminated by examining when they go awry. We review research o...
Abnormalities of the corpus callosum in nonpsychotic children with chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome 2004 97 Chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with elevated rates of schizophrenia and other psychoses in adulthood. Childhood morphologic brain abnormalities are frequently reported, but the significance of these and their relationship ...
Affective Temperaments: Unique Constructs or Dimensions of Normal Personality by Another Name? 2013 59 Background: Current models theorize that affective temperaments underlie the development and expression of mood psychopathology. Recent studies support the construct validity of affective temperaments in clinical and non-clinical samples. However, o...
Altered Development of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: An In Vivo Proton Spectroscopy Study 2012 194 Background Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), the most common microdeletion in humans, is associated with multiple medical features, almost universal cognitive deficits, and a high risk of schizophrenia. The metabolic basis of the psych...
Anxiety and depression symptoms in psychometrically identified schizotypy 2006 206 The neurodevelopmental vulnerability for schizophrenia appears to be expressed across a dynamic continuum of adjustment referred to as schizotypy. This model suggests that nonpsychotic schizotypic individuals should exhibit mild and transient forms o...
Assessment of Score Dependability of the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales Using Generalizability Analysis 2010 185 To investigate the reliability of the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales, this study applied generalizability analysis with two college student samples who completed the scales at two time points. The results indicated that the Revised Social Anhedonia Scal...
Association between Attachment Prototypes and Schizotypy Dimensions in Two Independent Non-clinical Samples of Spanish and American Young Adults 2013 68 Attachment theory offers a powerful theoretical framework for elucidating the developmental pathway through which childhood interpersonal trauma confers vulnerability to psychosis. In the present study, the association between attachment and schizoty...
The association of affective temperaments with impairment and psychopathology in a young adult sample. 2012 156 Background Previous research has examined the association of affective temperaments, as measured by the TEMPS-A, with DSM bipolar disorders. However, the relation of the TEMPS-A with risk for bipolar disorder remains unclear. The present study exami...
Attachment style predicts 6-month improvement in psychoticism in persons at-risk mental states for psychosis. 2012 197 Aim: Insecure attachment may influence vulnerability to and outcome of psychotic symptomatology. The present study examined whether attachment style predicted symptoms and functioning of at-risk mental state (ARMS) patients after 6 months of psychoso...
Being with others and feeling happy: Emotional expressivity in everyday life 2012 1412 An experience sampling study assessed the relation between psychological functioning in daily life and emotional expressivity as measured by the emotional expressivity scale (EES). Four hundred and twenty-nine participants carried personal digital as...
Brief assessment of schizotypy: Developing short forms of the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales 2011 320 The Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales—the Perceptual Aberration, Magical Ideation, Physical Anhedonia, and Revised Social Anhedonia Scales—have been used extensively since their development in the 1970s and 1980s. Based on psychometric analyses using item ...
Cognitive correlates of a functional COMT polymorphism in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome 2006 88 Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a common microdeletion syndrome associated with a markedly elevated risk of schizophrenia in adulthood. Cognitive impairments such as a low IQ and deficits in attention and executive function are comm...
Comparison of Self-reported Attachment in Young Adults from Spain and the United States 2013 52 Background: Previous studies have provided mixed evidence in support of the structure of Bartholomew’s attachment framework. The current study examined the comparability of the correlations among the attachment prototypes as well as the underlying fa...
COMT and anxiety and cognition in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome 2010 178 The COMT gene is thought to contribute to the cognitive/psychiatric phenotypes in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. We measured these manifestations against the Val/Met alleles of the COMT gene, in 40 nonpsychotic 22q11DS children. The Val allele was associ...
Deviant olfactory experiences as indicators of risk for psychosis. 1996 111 Developed and tested a rating scale for assessing olfactory experiences of psychotic and psychotic-like deviancy. It was examined whether deviant olfactory experiences in a nonpsychotic sample predict the development of clinical psychosis. 31 college...
The dimensional structure of the Wisconsin schizotypy scales: Factor identification and construct validity. 2008 600 The present study examined the factor structure underlying the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales and the validity of these dimensions. Confirmatory factor analysis with 6137 nonclinical young adults supported a 2-factor model with positive and negative sch...
Discordance in diagnoses and treatment of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome 2011 148 This study examines the rate of utilization of mental health services in children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS relative to their remarkably high rate of psychiatric disorders and behavior problems. Seventy-two children and adolescents with 22q11.2D...
Dissociative Experiences in Hypothetically Psychosis-Prone College Students 2000 195 The relationship between dissociative experiences and psychosis proneness was investigated in a sample of 523 college undergraduates. Participants were administered the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), the Perceptual Aberration Scale, the Magica...
Everyday Creativity in Daily Life: An Experience-sampling Study of “little c” Creativity 2014 233 Richards proposed that everyday creativity—creative actions that are common among ordinary people in daily life, such as drawing, making recipes, writing, and any activity done with the purpose of being creative—both fosters and reflects psychologica...
Evidence of gray matter reduction and dysfunction in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome 2010 133 Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with cognitive deficits and morphometric brain abnormalities in childhood and a markedly elevated risk of schizophrenia in adolescence/early adulthood. Determining the relationship between ...
Examination of the reliability and factor structure of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in a non-clinical sample 2007 392 A self-report screening measure for high functioning autism spectrum disorders is needed for diagnostic screening and research purposes. The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) has been developed for these reasons, although a comprehensive assessment of th...
An Experience-Sampling Study of Depressive Symptoms and Their Social Context 2011 223 Both clinical and subclinical depression are associated with social impairment; however, few studies have examined the impact of social contact in the daily lives of people with depressive symptoms. The current study used the experience-sampling meth...
The expression of adult AD/HD symptoms in daily life: An application of experience sampling methodology. 2008 728 Objective: To use experience sampling method (ESM) to examine the impact of inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms on emotional well-being, activities and distress, cognitive impairment, and social functioning assessed in the daily lives...
The Expression of Adult ADHD Symptoms in Daily Life: An Application of Experience Sampling Methodology 2008 774 Objective: To use experience sampling method (ESM) to examine the impact of inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms on emotional well-being, activities and distress, cognitive impairment, and social functioning assessed in the daily lives...
The expression of affective temperaments in daily life 2012 573 Background Numerous validation studies have examined the TEMPS-A in both clinical and nonclinical samples. However, the majority of these studies utilized cross-sectional assessments in laboratory or clinical settings. The present study is the first...
The expression of bipolar spectrum psychopathology in daily life 2011 236 Background Bipolar psychopathology has traditionally been defined by categorical diagnoses. However, these disorders may simply reflect the extremes of a broader spectrum of clinical and subclinical bipolar psychopathology. Method The present stud...
The expression of positive and negative schizotypy in daily life: an experience sampling study. 2012 3909 Background. Psychometrically identified positive schizotypy and negative schizotypy are differentially related to psychopathology, personality and social functioning. However, little is known about the experience and expression of schizotypy in daily...
Extralimital triradii as a putative marker of schizotypy 2005 125 Dermatoglyphic anomalies are reported to occur at a higher rate in schizophrenic patients and schizotypic individuals than in the general population, supporting the hypothesis that they are a marker of vulnerability for such conditions. Dermatoglyphi...
Facilitation of word recognition by semantic priming in schizophrenia 1990 177 Schizophrenic (n = 21), bipolar (n = 18), and normal control subjects (n = 21) were compared on a word recognition measure of semantic priming. The task involved the presentation of related, neutral, and unrelated word pairs; the second word (target ...
Factor Invariance of Psychometric Schizotypy in Spanish and American Sample 2011 119 The present study extended recent work examining the factor structure underlying the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales by examining the factor invariance of this structure in Spanish and American nonclinical samples of young adults. A series of confirmator...
The five-factor personality structure of dissociative experiences 2002 332 The relationship between dissociative experiences and the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of Personality was investigated in a sample of 858 college undergraduates. The NEO-PI-R [Costa Jr., P.T., & McCrae, R.R. (1992). The revised NEO personality inventory (...
For Whom the Mind Wanders, and When: An Experience- Sampling Study of Working Memory and Executive Control in Daily Life 2007 1798 An experience-sampling study of 124 under-graduates, pretested on complex memory-span tasks, examined the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and the experience of mind wandering in daily life. Over 7 days, personal digital assistants sign...
From Environment to Therapy in Psychosis: A Real-World Momentary Assessment Approach 2011 89 The current article discusses how momentary assessment may fundamentally contribute to identifying environmental risk factors and symptom patterns, as well as provide new opportunities for treatment. A new prototype device, the “PsyMate,” was specifi...
Gritty People Try Harder: Grit and Effort-related Cardiac Autonomic Activity during an Active Coping Challenge 2013 112 Grit, a recently proposed personality trait associated with persistence for long-range goals, predicts achievement in a wide range of important life outcomes. Using motivational intensity theory, the present research examined the physiological underp...
The interaction of reinforcement sensitivity and life events in the prediction of anhedonic depression and mixed anxiety-depression symptoms 2007 241 This study examined the relationship between reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST), life stress, and internalizing symptoms. Generally, low sensitivity of the behavioral approach system (BAS) predicts depression whereas high sensitivity of the behav...
Listening Between the Notes: Aesthetic Chills in Everyday Music Listening 2013 120 Who gets chills—a pleasurable feeling of goose bumps—in response to music, and why? The current study used experience sampling to examine within-person variability in aesthetic chills. For one week, 106 undergraduate participants responded to 10 dail...
A longitudinal study of drug and alcohol use by psychosis-prone and impulsive-nonconforming individuals. 1996 169 The rates of substance use and abuse are higher among psychotic patients and antisocial individuals than in the general population. In a 10-year longitudinal study, psychosis-prone individuals identified by the Perceptual Aberration (L. J. Chapman, J...
A Longitudinal Study of High Scorers on the Hypomanic Personality Scale 2000 187 Former college students (n = 36) identified by high scores on the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HYP; Eckblad & Chapman, 1986) were compared with control participants (n = 31) at a 13-year follow-up assessment. As hypothesized, the HYP group reported m...
Looking for bipolar spectrum psychopathology: identification and expression in daily life 2012 517 Objectives Current clinical and epidemiological research provides support for a continuum of bipolar psychopathology: a bipolar spectrum that ranges from subclinical manifestations to full-blown bipolar disorders. Examining subthreshold bipolar symp...
Magical ideation and social anhedonia as predictors of psychosis proneness: A partial replication. 1997 424 The authors compared college students identified by high scores on the Magical Ideation Scale (M. Eckblad & L. J. Chapman, 1983) and the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (MagSoc; n = 28; M. Eckblad, L. J. Chapman, J. P. Chapman, & M. Mishlove, 1982) wi...
Missed Beeps and Missing Data Dispositional and Situational Predictors of Nonresponse in Experience Sampling Research 2013 50 Experience sampling research measures people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions in their everyday lives by repeatedly administering brief questionnaires throughout the day. Nonresponse—failing to respond to these daily life questionnaires—has been a v...
Momentary Assessment Research in Psychosis 2009 430 There is an expanding interest to study psychosis in the realm of daily life. The study of the person in the context of daily life may provide a powerful addition to more conventional and cross-sectional research strategies in the study of psychosis....
Monaural and binaural story recall by schizophrenic subjects. 1993 128 P. Green and other investigators have reported that schizophrenic Ss have poorer recall of stories presented to both ears than to the single best ear (binaural deficit) and poorer recall of stories presented to the left ear than to the right ear (mon...
Music to the Inner Ears: Exploring Individual Differences in Musical Imagery 2013 71 In two studies, we explored the frequency and phenomenology of musical imagery. Study 1 used retrospective reports of musical imagery to assess the contribution of individual differences to imagery characteristics. Study 2 used an experience sampling...
Neurological soft signs in psychometrically identified schizotypy 2009 96 Patients with schizophrenia often exhibit structural brain abnormalities, as well as neurological soft signs (NSS), consistent with its conceptualization as a neurodevelopmental disorder. NSS are mild, presumably nonlocalizing, neurological impairmen...
Palm or Cell? Comparing Personal Digital Assistants and Cell Phones for Experience Sampling Research 2013 54 Personal digital assistants (PDA), particularly Palm Pilots, are popular data collection devices in experience sampling research. The declining availability of such devices, however, has prompted researchers to explore alternative technologies for si...
Positive and negative schizotypy are associated with prodromal and schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms. 2013 631 The present study examined the validity of psychometrically assessed positive and negative schizotypy in a study of 214 Spanish young adults using interview and questionnaire measures of impairment and psychopathology. Schizotypy provides a useful co...
Prediction of Psychopathology and Functional Impairment by Positive and Negative Schizotypy in the Chapmans’ Ten-year Longitudinal Study 2013 71 The present study examined the predictive validity of psychometrically assessed positive and negative schizotypy in the Chapmans’ 10-year longitudinal data set. Schizotypy provides a useful construct for understanding the etiology and development of ...
The Psychometric Detection of Schizotypy : Do Putative Schizotypy Indicators Identify the Same Latent Class? 2004 125 The authors examined whether three indicators of Schizotypy, the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (RSAS), Magical Ideation Scale (MIS), and Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS), identify a common latent class or taxon as conceptualized by P. E. Meehl (196...
Psychometric Properties and Concurrent Validity of the Schizotypal Ambivalence Scale 2002 153 The Schizotypal Ambivalence Scale (SAS) is a 19-item revision of the Intense Ambivalence Scale, which was designed to identify ambivalence described by Meehl as characteristic of schizotypy and schizophrenia. The present study examined the psychometr...
Psychometric properties and validity of short forms of the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales in two large samples 2012 644 The Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales (WSS) have been widely used in the study of clinical and non-clinical samples. However, researchers often find the length of the scales prohibitive. The present study examined the reliability and validity of recently d...
Psychometric Properties of the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales in an Undergraduate Sample: Classical Test Theory, Item Response Theory, and Differential Item Functioning 2011 451 The Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales are widely used for assessing schizotypy in nonclinical and clinical samples. However, they were developed using classical test theory (CTT) and have not had their psychometric properties examined with more sophisticat...
Psychometric Schizotypy Predicts Psychotic-like, Paranoid, and Negative Symptoms in Daily Life 2013 69 Positive and negative schizotypy exhibit differential patterns of impairment in social relations, affect, and functioning in daily life. However, studies have not examined the association of schizotypy with real-world expression of psychotic-like, pa...
Psychopathology, Social Adjustment and Personality Correlates of Schizotypy Clusters in a Large Nonclinical Sample 2010 78 Introduction Correlational methods, unlike cluster analyses, cannot take into account the possibility that individuals score highly on more than one symptom dimension simultaneously. This may account for some of the inconsistency found in the litera...
Psychotic-like symptoms and positive schizotypy are associated with mixed and ambiguous handedness in an adolescent community sample. 2013 510 The objective of this study was to replicate the association between atypical handedness and psychosis-proneness in a representative sample of adolescents from the general population. It expands previous studies by (1) analyzing a variety of atypical...
Putatively psychosis-prone subjects 10 years later 1994 585 The predictive validities of several indicators of psychosis proneness were evaluated in a 10-yr longitudinal study (N = 508). As hypothesized, high scorers on the Perceptual Aberration Scale, Magical Ideation Scale, or both (n = 182), especially tho...
Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory Predicts Positive and Negative Affect in Daily Life 2013 54 Reinforcement sensitivity | Sensitivity to punishment | Sensitivity to reward| Experience sampling methodology | Affect | Daily life
The Relationship of Asperger’s Characteristics and Schizotypal Personality Traits in a Non-clinical Adult Sample 2006 1805 The study examines the relationship between Asperger’s Disorder (AD) and Schizotypal Personality Disorder (SPD), mutually exclusive but similar diagnoses [DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association (2000).Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental ...
The relationship of social anxiety and social anhedonia to psychometrically identified schizotypy. 2008 1258 Schizotypy and schizophrenia involve social disinterest (anhedonia) and social anxiety. To clarify the role of social dysfunction in schizotypy, this study examined the relationship of social anxiety and social anhedonia in 364 young adults. As hypot...
Schizophrenic-like neurocognitive deficits in children and adolescents with 22q11 deletion syndrome 2007 86 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is the most common genetic microdeletion syndrome affecting humans. The syndrome is associated with general cognitive impairments and specific deficits in visual-spatial ability, non-verbal reasoning, and planning ...
The Schizotypal Ambivalence Scale as a Marker of Schizotypy 2008 178 The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Schizotypal Ambivalence Scale (SAS) in a sample of 1798 young adults. The study also investigated the concurrent validity of the measure for identifying schizophrenic-like symptoms in a sa...
Slowness and the preceding preparatory interval effect in schizophrenia 1993 267 Measured the reaction times (RTs) of 25 schizophrenic (SCZ), 69 matched normal, and 14 bipolar Ss to a tone preceded by a preparatory interval (PI) of varying length. RTs increase when the PI for the immediately preceding trial (PPI) is longer than t...
Smooth pursuit eye tracking and visual fixation in psychosis-prone individuals 2002 113 Subjects identified by Perceptual Aberration-Magical Ideation (Per-Mag) scores (n=97), Social Anhedonia (SocAnh) scores (n=45), and Physical Anhedonia (PhysAnh) scores (n=31) as well as normal controls (n=94), underwent psychophysiological and clinic...
Social anhedonia as a predictor of the development of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. 1998 267 College undergraduates (n = 34) identified by deviant scores (at least 1.96 SD above the mean) on the Revised Social Anhedonia (SocAnh) Scale (M. Eckblad, L. J. Chapman, J. P. Chapman, & M. Mishlove, 1982) were compared with control participants (n =...
Social skills and associated psychopathology in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: Implications for interventions 2012 238 Background Although distinctive neuropsychological impairments have been delineated in children with chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), social skills and social cognition remain less well-characterised. Objective To examine social skill...
The social world of the socially anhedonic: Exploring the daily ecology of asociality. 2009 1010 The need to belong is fundamental to human motivation. The significance of needs for relatedness and intimacy can be highlighted by examining aberrations in these needs. Social anhedonia, a component of the schizophrenia spectrum, represents a lack o...
Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Function in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Implications for Genetic Counseling 2010 152 The purpose of this study is to examine the association between parental socio-economic status (SES) and childhood neurocognition and behavior in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). Although undoubtedly, the deletion of gene...
A Ten-Year Longitudinal Study of Intense Ambivalence as a Predictor of Risk for Psychopathology 2000 229 The predictive validity of the Intense Ambivalence Scale was examined in a 10-year longitudinal study of 362 psychometrically identified psychosis-prone and control participants. Elevated scores on the Intense Ambivalence Scale predicted psychotic-li...
Three Studies on Self-Report Scales to Detect Bipolar Disorder 2011 748 Background-This study investigated the usefulness of self-report scales for detecting bipolar disorder in several settings. Methods-Study 1 developed a short form of the Hypomanic Personality Scale (the HPS-6) based on clinic/community and undergrad...
Tracking the train of thought from the laboratory into everyday life: An experience-sampling study of mind wandering across controlled and ecological contexts 2009 652 In an experience-sampling study that bridged laboratory, ecological, and individual-differences approaches to mind-wandering research, 72 subjects completed an executive-control task with periodic thought probes (reported by McVay & Kane, 2009) and t...
Validity and Usefulness of the Wisconsin Manual for Assessing Psychotic-like Experiences 1999 92 Reviews the development, validity, and potential uses of the Wisconsin Manual for Assessing Psychotic-like Experiences (WMAPE; L. J. Chapman and J. P. Chapman, 1980), and provides an interview schedule for collecting information required to make the ...
When the Need to Belong Goes Wrong: The Expression of Social Anhedonia and Social Anxiety in Daily Life 2007 158 Baumeister and Leary (1995) proposed that people possess an innate “need to belong” that drives social interactions. Aberrations in the need to belong, such as social anhedonia and anxiety, provide a point of entry for examining this need. The curren...
Wisconsin Card Sorting Test deficits in schizotypic individuals 1999 279 The present study investigates executive functioning in schizotypic college students and control subjects using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Inhibitory control and working memory, two aspects of executive functioning, were examined in devi...
Worries about Being Judged versus Being Harmed: Disentangling the Association of Social Anxiety and Paranoia with Schizotypy 2014 78 Paranoia is a dimension of clinical and subclinical experiences in which others are believed to have harmful intentions. Mild paranoid concerns are relatively common in the general population, and more clinically severe paranoia shares features with ...