An examination of feedback interactions between athletic training students and clinical instructors

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Sara Lynn Nottingham (Creator)
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
Web Site:
Jolene Henning

Abstract: Feedback has been established as an important educational tool in athletic training clinical education. However, there is currently minimal understanding of the feedback provided during athletic training clinical education experiences. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of feedback in athletic training clinical education, in addition to perceptions of and influences on the feedback that is occurring. Exploratory, qualitative methods primarily drawing from a case-study design were used to investigate this topic. Four clinical instructors (CI) and four second-year athletic training students from one CAATE-accredited entry-level master's athletic training program participated in this study. Two CIs were located in a Division I collegiate athletics setting and the other two CIs were located in an outpatient rehabilitation clinic. The researcher observed and audio recorded each CI-student pair during their normal daily interactions for three or four days of the student's clinical rotation. After observations were completed, each participant was interviewed individually to gain understanding of their perceptions of feedback and influential factors on feedback. A total of 88 feedback exchanges were recorded during 45 hours and 10 minutes of observation. CIs generally provided feedback that coincides with recommendations for effective feedback in the literature, including immediate, specific, and positive feedback. CIs and students had similar perceptions of the feedback that occurred during their interactions and had similar opinions of what is considered ideal feedback, including immediate, specific, verbal, and positive. Both CIs and students also described that several factors influence their feedback exchanges, including availability of time, personalities, and the patient. The findings of this study provide insight on the feedback that is currently occurring in athletic training clinical education. Athletic training educators can use this information when training CIs how to provide feedback to students, in addition to evaluating their effectiveness. The exploratory nature of this study also exposes several areas where further research is needed. Investigators need to continue examining the feedback that is occurring across several athletic training programs, in addition to learning more about the effectiveness of feedback training programs, the unique challenges faced by novice CIs, and the extent that personality, time, and the patient influence student learning.

Additional Information

Language: English
Date: 2011
Allied health, Approved Clinical Instructor, Clinical teaching, Education, Kinesiology
Feedback (Psychology)
Athletic trainers $x Education, Higher $v Case studies

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