The influence of habitual fluid intake on energy balance

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Mitchell Evan Zaplatosch (Creator)
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
Web Site:
Laurie Wideman

Abstract: Epidemiologic data have linked chronic low fluid intake (i.e., underhydration) with greater incidence of obesity, but the underlying mechanisms behind this association are unclear. No study has assessed the direct effect of underhydration on energy balance (EB), which is inclusive of energy consumed from food or fluid (EI) and energy expended from resting metabolism (RMR), the thermic effect of food (TEF), and physical activity (PAEE). Underhydration increases release of the fluid regulatory hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) to conserve total body water. However, chronic elevations in AVP may cause metabolic changes including alterations in cortisol release that could influence one’s propensity toward developing obesity and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to characterize the associations between habitual fluid intake and behavioral, perceptual, and physiologic factors influencing energy balance to inform the development of effective intervention strategies promoting adequate hydration for metabolic health. Healthy male participants with low, moderate, and high habitual fluid intake completed measures of EI and fluid intake (TFI), PAEE for seven days, as well as measures of hydration status for four of these days. Participants also came to the lab for assessments of RMR, TEF, fasting and postprandial changes in appetite and thirst, food reward, and salivary and hematological measures of hormonal responses to hydration status. Higher habitual fluid intake was associated with higher RMR and increased PAEE, but there was no effect on overall EB. There was no association between habitual fluid intake and appetite ratings. Lower habitual fluid intake and a flatter diurnal cortisol slope were independently associated with liking of high fat sweet foods and wanting of high fat savory foods, respectively, but twenty-four-hour urinary osmolality was not associated with salivary cortisol dynamics (peak cortisol, cortisol awakening response, diurnal cortisol slope). These data suggest increased fluid intake is a promising target for future interventions to aid with weight maintenance from both a physiologic and behavioral standpoint.

Additional Information

Language: English
Date: 2023
Energy Balance, Food, Hormones, Hydration, Physical Activity, Water
Drinking (Physiology)

Email this document to