A meta-analysis of context integration deficits across the schizotypy spectrum

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Charlotte Chun (Creator)
Institution
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
Web Site: http://library.uncg.edu/
Advisor
Thomas Kwapil

Abstract: Schizophrenia is the most extreme manifestation of schizotypy, a continuum of symptoms and impairment that ranges from minimal impairment to full-blown psychosis. Schizophrenia has been described as a disorder of disrupted context integration (CI), the ability to assimilate internal and external information into coherent mental representations. CI in schizotypy is often measured with the AX-Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT) and the Dot Pattern Expectancy (DPX) task. Research using these tasks indicated CI deficits along the schizotypy spectrum, but has primarily been conducted with schizophrenia patients. There have been mixed findings regarding outcomes such as error patterns and the association of CI deficits with schizotypy symptom dimensions. Further, conclusions were limited by generally small sample sizes, heterogeneous patient variables, and varied task parameters across studies. The current study used systematic review and meta-analysis to collect and synthesize data on AX-CPT and DPX performance across the schizotypy spectrum. CI impairment was present across the schizotypy spectrum. CI deficits in schizophrenia were substantial in magnitude and correlated with disorganized and negative symptom dimensions. Error patterns suggested a specific deficit in CI, which was larger than deficits attributed to broader cognitive impairment and general psychopathology. When examining subgroups, CI performance was comparable between chronic and first-episode schizophrenia patients. Groups at risk to develop schizophrenia demonstrated moderate CI impairment. The results were generally robust across task parameters and there was no evidence of reporting biases. In sum, these findings lend additional support to theories suggesting that CI is a stable vulnerability factor for schizophrenia.

Additional Information

Publication
Dissertation
Language: English
Date: 2018
Keywords
Cognitive Neuroscience, Meta-Analysis, Psychosis, Schizophrenia, Schizotypy, Systematic Review
Subjects
Schizotypal personality disorder
Cognitive neuroscience

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