Lower Extremity Energy Absorption and Biomechanics During Landing, Part II: Frontal-Plane Energy Analyses and Interplanar Relationships

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Sandra J. Shultz, Professor and Chair (Creator)
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
Web Site: http://library.uncg.edu/

Abstract: Context: Greater sagittal-plane energy absorption (EA) during the initial impact phase (INI) of landing is consistent with sagittal-plane biomechanics that likely increase anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) loading, but it does not appear to influence frontal-plane biomechanics. We do not know whether frontal-plane INI EA is related to high-risk frontal-plane biomechanics.Objective: To compare biomechanics among INI EA groups, determine if women are represented more in the high group, and evaluate interplanar INI EA relationships.Design: Descriptive laboratory study.Setting: Research laboratory.Patients or Other Participants: Participants included 82 (41 men, 41 women; age = 21.0 ± 2.4 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.10 m, mass = 70.3 ± 16.1 kg) healthy, physically active volunteers.Intervention(s): We assessed landing biomechanics with an electromagnetic motion-capture system and force plate.Main Outcome Measure(s): We calculated frontal- and sagittal-plane total, hip, knee, and ankle INI EA. Total frontal-plane INI EA was used to create high, moderate, and low tertiles. Frontal-plane knee and hip kinematics, peak vertical and posterior ground reaction forces, and peak internal knee-varus moment (pKVM) were identified and compared across groups using 1-way analyses of variance. We used a x2 analysis to evaluate male and female allocation to INI EA groups. We used simple, bivariate Pearson product moment correlations to assess interplanar INI EA relationships.Results: The high–INI EA group exhibited greater knee valgus at ground contact, hip adduction at pKVM, and peak hip adduction than the low–INI EA group (P < .05) and greater peak knee valgus, pKVM, and knee valgus at pKVM than the moderate– (P < .05) and low– (P < .05) INI EA groups. Women were more likely than men to be in the high–INI EA group (X2= 4.909, P = .03). Sagittal-plane knee and frontal-plane hip INI EA (r = 0.301, P = .006) and sagittal-plane and frontal-plane ankle INI EA were associated (r = 0.224, P = .04). No other interplanar INI EA relationships were found (P > .05).Conclusions: Greater frontal-plane INI EA was associated with less favorable frontal-plane biomechanics that likely result in greater ACL loading. Women were more likely than men to use greater frontal-plane INI EA. The magnitudes of sagittal- and frontal-plane INI EA were largely independent.

Additional Information

Journal of Athletic Training. 2013:48(6):757-763
Language: English
Date: 2013
anterior cruciate ligament, kinetics, kinematics

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