Nir B. Kshetri

There are 84 included publications by Nir B. Kshetri :

TitleDateViewsBrief Description
The Adoption of E-Business by Organizations in China: An Institutional Perspective 2007 2221 The Chinese e-business industry has a number of unusual features. Institutional factors such as strong nationalism, the state's entrenchment in the economy, political cognitive and political normative factors, regulative uncertainty, the role of prof...
Banking on Availability 2017 65 Combating the growing threat to banks of distributed denial-of-service attacks will demand more than keeping pace in a technological arms race; it will also require greater information sharing among banks and other cybersecurity entities.
Barriers to e-commerce and competitive business models in developing countries: A case study 2007 18496 This paper integrates and extends research on e-commerce in the developing world. We use three categories of feedback systems–economic, sociopolitical and cognitive—to offer a simple model of e-commerce barriers in the developing world. We also exami...
Big Data's Impact on Privacy, Security and Consumer Welfare 2014 7056 The purpose of this paper is to highlight the costs, benefits, and externalities associated with organizations? use of big data. Specifically, it investigates how various inherent characteristics of big data are related to privacy, security and consu...
Business perceptions of regulative institutions in Central and Eastern Europe 2010 994 Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate, theoretically and empirically, how entrepreneurial firms' perceptions of formal institutions differ across Central and Eastern European (CEE) economies. Design/methodology/approach – The paper us...
Can Blockchain Strengthen the Internet of Things? 2017 618 Blockchain—a kind of distributed ledger technology—has been described in the popular press as the next big thing. Put simply, a blockchain is a data structure that makes it possible to create a tamper-proof digital ledger of transactions and share th...
China’s Data Privacy Regulations: A Tricky Trade-Off between ICT’s Productive Utilization and Cyber-Control 2014 93 China's data privacy laws and regulations reflect the tension it faces between using modern information and communications technologies (ICTs) to maintain unity and stability via cybercontrol and using them to stimulate economic growth and productivi...
Chinese and Indian Trade and Investment Links with Sub-Saharan Africa: Institutions, Capabilities and Competitive Advantage 2013 1644 Because of cultural, historical and geopolitical differences, Chinese and Indian businesses have exhibited noteworthy differences in their operations in the economies in the Sub-Saharan Africa SSA. Drawing on theories related to institutions and dyna...
Chinese institutions and standardization: The case of government support to domestic third generation cellular standard 2011 1594 There are unique and distinct institutional processes associated with the Chinese government's support of the domestically developed third generation (3G) cellular standard, TD-SCDMA. After postponing several times, China awarded three third generati...
Cloud Computing and EU Data Privacy Regulations 2013 1679 The European Union’s Data Protection Directive has been its major legislative instrument for handling consumer data. While the Directive hasn’t been revised since its passage in 1995, there have been dramatic changes in the ways personal data...
Cloud Computing in Developing Economies 2010 6100 The developing world must exploit the opportunities afforded by cloud computing while minimizing the associated risks to allow access to advanced IT infrastructure, data centers, and applications and protect sensitive information.
Cloud Computing in the Global South: Drivers, Effects and Policy Measures 2011 51 Cloud computing has started to transform economic activities in the global South. Many businesses are taking advantage of the pay-as-you-go model of the technology, and its scalability and flexibility features, and government agencies in the South ha...
Cloud Computing in India 2012 1540 Cloud computing is still in its infancy in India, but as economic and institutional factors improve, it could greatly accelerate India's digitization and transform how cell phones are used. If appropriate measures are adopted at various levels, the c...
Cloud Computing in Sub-Saharan Africa 2013 45 Cloud-related innovations and services are becoming fundamental sources of economic and societal change in Sub-Saharan African economies, which are embracing cloud computing. This analysis of the cloud market examines both driving and constraining fa...
Cross-National Heterogeneity in Retail Spending: Evidence from Longitudinal Country-Level Data 2012 991 Economies worldwide vary greatly in terms of how much their consumers spend on various types of retail activities. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the regulatory characteristics as well as the natures and strategies of businesses are rela...
Cyber-victimization and Cybersecurity in China 2013 404 Seeking insights into cyberattacks associated with China.
Cybercrime and Cyber-security Issues Associated with China: Some Economic and Institutional Considerations 2013 7378 China is linked to cybercrimes of diverse types, scales, motivations and objectives. The Chinese cyberspace thus provides an interesting setting for the study of cybercrimes. In this paper, we first develop typology, classification and characterizati...
Cybercrime and Cybersecurity in India: Causes, Consequences and Implications for the Future 2016 62 Cybercrime is rising rapidly in India. Developing economies such as India face unique cybercrime risks. This paper examines cybercrime and cybersecurity in India. The literature on which this paper draws is diverse, encompassing the work of economist...
Cybercrime and Cybersecurity Issues in the BRICS Economies [Editorial] 2015 63 Cybercrime and cybersecurity issues in the BRICS countries have important global implications, both politically and economically. All of the fast-growing BRICS economies are members of the Group of Twenty. These economies’ cybersecurity frameworks ha...
Cybercrimes in the Former Soviet Union and Central and Eastern Europe: Current Status and Key Drivers 2013 4764 Some economies in the Former Soviet Union and Central and Eastern Europe (FSU&CEE) are known as cybercrime hotspots. FSU&CEE economies have shown complex and varied responses to cybercrimes due partly to the differential incentives and pressures they...
Cybersecurity and Development 2016 65 While scholars and policymakers have realized the importance of information and communication technologies in economic development, relatively less attention has been given to the role of cybersecurity. This research sheds light on issues associated ...
Cybersecurity in India: Regulations, governance, institutional capacity and market mechanisms 2017 298 The meteoric rise in cybercrime has been an issue of pressing concern to businesses and consumers in India. Among the Indian organizations, which responded to KPMG’s (2014) Cybercrime Survey report 2014, 89% considered cybercrime as a “major threat” ...
Cyberwarfare in the Korean Peninsula: Asymmetries and Strategic Responses 2014 1078 In this paper, we argue that the two Koreas’ intentions and actions on the cyber front point toward the possibility that they have engaged in cyber warfare against each other. From South Korea’s standpoint, a key concern has been North Korea’s advanc...
Cyberwarfare: Western and Chinese Allegations 2014 51 A large proportion of China-originated cyberattacks are allegedly aimed at extracting high-value intellectual property such as trade secrets. Senior government officials from China and the US have made frequent verbal and written allegations that the...
Determinants of the Global Diffusion of B2B E-Commerce 2002 3800 Compared to business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce, business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce is larger, growing faster and has less unequal geographical distribution globally. In this paper, we examine the current stage of B2B e-commerce development acro...
Determinants of the Locus of Global E-commerce 2001 2197 Internet and e-commerce are experiencing hyperbolic growth rates and highly asymmetric global distribution. There is also a significant variation worldwide in the means used to access the Internet and the e-commerce models adopted. This paper attempt...
Developing Successful Entrepreneurial Ecosystems: Lessons from a Comparison of an Asian Tiger and a Baltic Tiger 2014 106 Purpose– There are strong similarities and striking differences in Estonia's and South Korea's entrepreneurial ecosystems. The purpose of this paper is to seek to compare and contrast these two economies in terms of key indicators related to impacts,...
The development of market orientation: a consideration of institutional influence in China 2009 2192 Purpose – China has followed an unique transition from central planning to a market economy. The purpose of this paper is to examine how China's unique blend of capitalism and socialism has influenced Chinese firms? market orientation. Design/methodo...
Development of a Smart City and its Adoption and Acceptance: the Case of New Songdo 2014 55 South Korea's new Songdo city provides a spectacular example of a smart city, which is developed as an aerotropolis, and a ubiquitous city (U-City). An intriguing aspect of the development of the new Songdo city is that supportive formal and informal...
The Diaspora as a Change Agent in Entrepreneurship-Related Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa 2013 56 Diaspora networks' role in supporting and stimulating entrepreneurial activities in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) economies need hardly be elaborated. For instance, some SSA countries have established government agencies to encourage diasporas to help lo...
Diaspora Networks, Non-Economic Remittances and Entrepreneurship Development: Evidence from Some Economies in Latin America 2015 55 Diaspora networks' non-economic remittances in the forms of social, political, cultural and technical contributions to their homeland play important roles in entrepreneurship and economic development. In this paper, we examine the effects of such rem...
Diffusion and Effects of Cyber-Crime in Developing Economies 2010 8506 Cyber-crime's footprints across the developing world are getting bigger. The aim of this article is to examine the structure of cyber-crimes in developing economies. Its central idea is that economic and institutional factors facing cyber-criminals a...
Diffusion pattern of Linux: An assessment on major technology dimensions 2005 591 This paper attempts to gain an understanding of the diffusion dynamics of Linux by assessing it on Rogers’ technology dimensions — relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, observability, and trialability. The analysis makes clear that Linux pos...
Do Crypto-Currencies Fuel Ransomware? 2017 113 As ransomware spreads, victimization rates escalate. A Finnish cybersecurity firm’s F-Secure State of Cyber Security 2017 report stated that there was only one ransomware “variant” in 2012. This increased to 35 in 2015 and 193 in 2016.(1) Individuals...
E-Commerce Patterns in South Asia: A Look Beyond Economics 2005 1334 Conflicting and complex forces are shaping the diffusion patterns of the Internet and e-commerce in South Asia. Drawing upon the literature on institutional theory, we explore the drivers and inhibitors of the Internet in South Asian countries. We ex...
Economics and politics of advertising: Evidence from the enlarging European Union 2007 1279 Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of economic and political factors on advertising industry in the enlarging EU. Design/methodology/approach – The paper employed random effect time series cross-section (TSCS) models an...
The Economics of Click Fraud 2010 4414 Click fraud is a substantial threat in the cyberworld. Here, the author examines the contexts, mechanisms, and processes associated with the click-fraud industry from an economics viewpoint. The nature of electronic channels, characterized by asymmet...
Economics of Linux Adoption in Developing Countries 2004 1875 There was once a time when developing software required only three main ingredients: a user with a need, a computer, and a programmer. Once these three ingredients came together, the resulting team could largely ignore everything in the outside wo...
Emerging Economies and the Global Financial Crisis: Evidence from China and India 2011 65 The global financial crisis (GFC) spread from the US and the EU economies to the developing world. In this article, we seek to gain a better understanding of clear contexts, attendant mechanisms, and processes associated with the GFC in China and Ind...
The Emerging Role of Big Data in Key Development Issues: Opportunities, Challenges, and Concerns 2014 66 This paper presents a review of academic literature, policy documents from government organizations and international agencies, and reports from industries and popular media on the trends in Big Data utilization in key development issues and its wort...
Entrepreneurship in post-socialist economies: A typology and institutional contexts for market entrepreneurship 2009 2791 There is growing recognition among post-socialist (PS) economies that free-market entrepreneurship is essential for ultimately improving their economic future. The promotion of market entrepreneurship, however, has been a challenging experience for t...
EU and US Cybersecurity Strategies and Their Impact on Businesses and Consumers 2013 60 To secure information systems and protect vital national and global infrastructure, IT professionals need to understand key elements of national cybersecurity strategies and their impact and coordinate their efforts at local, national, and global lev...
The evolution of the Chinese online gaming industry 2009 7684 Purpose – This paper seeks to examine the growth of the Chinese online gaming industry and disentangle the mechanisms behind the emergence of unique online gaming culture in China. Design/methodology/approach – This is a review paper that provides a ...
An Exploratory Study of the Functional Forms of Export Market Identification Variables 2006 1284 Exploratory research demonstrates that the import market potential, import market competitiveness, and "barriers-to-imports" variables can be successfully integrated into a shift-share framework for identifying export markets. The authors present man...
Factors Impacting the Adoption of the Internet among SMEs 2004 5181 The Internet can extend market reach and operational efficiency of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and enhance their contributions to the U.S. economy. This paper reports an empirical study conducted to identify the factors that impact SMEs' invo...
Foreign Firms’ Access to the Japanese Market 2014 63 This paper examines interrelationships among foreign firms' perceptions of market barriers related to the access, quality of inter-organisational institutions and their market commitment and performance in Japan. Our findings suggest that foreign fir...
Fostering Startup Ecosystems in India 2016 127 Because of India’s improving entrepreneurial performance, some analysts consider the country as the next Asian miracle (Huang, 2008). The State's domination over the economy is gradually declining and there are some signs that the country is moving t...
Gambling with Source Code 2016 64 Tech companies required to comply with controversial regulations in foreign countries as a cost of doing business there must trade off the potential economic benefits with the risk of long-term harm.
Global Cybersecurity: Issues and Concerns [Editorial] 2013 49 By all accounts, the global cybercrime industry is significantly bigger than most of the major and well-known underground and underworld industries. The most often cited figure for the annual worldwide loss to cybercrime is US$1 trillion (Kshetri, 20...
Government Policy, Continental Collaboration and the Diffusion of Open Source Software in China, Japan, and South Korea 2007 1547 The scale of development and deployment of open source software (OSS) in the three Northeast Asian countries–China, Japan, and South Korea–is large enough to be noticed at the global level. OSS has redefined the dynamics of software markets in the th...
Improving Open Source Software Maintenance 2010 973 Maintenance is inevitable for almost any software. Software maintenance is required to fix bugs, to add new features, to improve performance, and/or to adapt to a changed environment. In this article, we examine change in cognitive complexity and ...
In Focus: An Opinion on the Report on Securing and Growing the Digital Economy 2017 67 On 1 December 2016, the US Commission on Enhancing National Cybersecurity (the Commission)—charged with developing recommendations to ensure the digital economy’s growth and security—released the “Report on Securing and Growing the Digital Economy” (...
Increasing Returns and the Diffusion of Linux in China 2007 912 China's unique combination of institutions, industries, and markets has fostered the generation and use of Linux-related innovations. Analyzing increasing returns provides key insight into this proliferation.
India’s Cybersecurity Landscape: The Roles of the Private Sector and Public-Private Partnership 2015 60 Are public–private partnerships an appropriate means of dealing with underdeveloped cybersecurity-related institutions in India? Whereas the government lacks the resources and expertise to develop new templates, monitor industry behaviors, and enforc...
The Indian Environment for Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development 2011 56 India is touted as a new entrepreneurship powerhouse and the next Asian miracle. There have been some successful and many unsuccessful attempts to promote entrepreneurship and small business development in India. There are also some well-founded rati...
Information and communications technologies, strategic asymmetry and national security 2005 9497 In the history of warfare, there are a number of examples of strategic uses of asymmetric technologies. Consistent with history and theory, individuals, organizations and nations have spotted opportunities to employ information and communications tec...
Information and communications technologies, strategic asymmetry and national security 2005 9497 In the history of warfare, there are a number of examples of strategic uses of asymmetric technologies. Consistent with history and theory, individuals, organizations and nations have spotted opportunities to employ information and communications tec...
Institutional and Economic Foundation of Entrepreneurship in Africa: An Overview 2011 53 Africa is arguably the richest continent in terms of minerals and natural resources. Prior research has also shown that Africa has an abundance of entrepreneurs who possess the ability to identify business opportunities and exploit them. However, the...
Institutional Changes Affecting Entrepreneurship in China 2007 3371 Institutions influencing entrepreneurship are undergoing significant transformation in China. During the Mao era, private entrepreneurship was virtually eradicated and was a political taboo. As reflected in the macro-level economic data, there has be...
Institutional factors affecting offshore business process and information technology outsourcing 2007 3745 Micro and macro level impacts of offshore outsourcing are far from clear. Thus there are some well-founded rationales for and against offshore outsourcing as well as a number of misinformed and ill guided viewpoints. Using institutional theory as a l...
Institutional reforms in the Gulf Cooperation Council economies: A conceptual framework 2008 2165 Institutions are slow to change in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) economies. More to the point, institutions promoting free enterprise economy are lacking in the region. Concepts and theory building are lacking on the dynamics and forces related ...
Institutionalization of intellectual property rights in China 2009 1746 Institutional field Summary Following the 1978 political and economic reforms, China has undergone a sig-nificant transformation on the intellectual property rights (IPR) front. In this paper, we use neo-institutional theory to examine the institutio...
An Interview with Dr. Taro Komukai, Executive Director and Senior Consultant, InfoCom Research, Japan 2014 52 Japan is undergoing a significant transformation in its approach to data privacy and security protection. Dr. Komukai explains the key elements of the framework for personal data protection in Japan, recent developments on this front, similarity and ...
IT in the Chinese Healthcare Industry 2013 1838 China is leveraging the cloud and mobile computing to enable doctors and other healthcare professionals to collaborate, share information, and more easily access reports, scans, EMRs, lab reports, prescriptions, and medical histories. China is also g...
Japan's Changing Cybersecurity Landscape 2014 1935 Japan's cybersecurity efforts have been lacking compared to other advanced economies, but the country is now taking more aggressive steps to address this deficiency.
Kaspersky Lab: From Russia with Anti-virus 2011 65 Kaspersky Lab is a provider of information technology (IT) security products such as anti-virus, anti-spam and network security software. It is Russia's largest software company and the only Russian firm that ranked among the world's top 100 software...
Les activités d’espionnage électronique et de contrôle d’Internet à l’ère de l’infonuagique : le cas de la Chine 2012 957 Meme si environ quarante gouvernements controlent leur environnement virtuel, peu ont reussi a le faire aussi bien que la Chine. Au cours des dernieres annees, cette realite est devenue preoccupante en raison de la diffusion et du developpement rapid...
The Link between Societal Motivation and New Venture Performance: Evidence from Entrepreneurs in Japan 2014 67 Although there has been an increase in the popularity of social entrepreneurship, previous studies have paid little attention to for-profit entrepreneurs’ motive of making a contribution to the society, that is, societal motivation. In this study, we...
Mobile Payment in Emerging Markets 2012 2183 Mobile payments have been a key driver of socio-economic development in emerging markets. Factors such as advancements in technology, socioeconomic conditions, and the high penetration rate of mobile devices are driving m-payment development in certa...
Offshoring of healthcare services: the case of US-India trade in medical transcription services 2011 6730 Purpose – The issue of offshore outsourcing of healthcare services is a critical but little-examined problem in healthcare research. The purpose of this study is to contribute to filling this void. Design/methodology/approach – A library-based study ...
Pattern of global cyber war and crime: A conceptual framework 2005 18308 The flourishing synergy arising between organized crimes and the Internet has increased the insecurity of the digital world. How hackers frame their actions? What factors encourage and energize their behavior? These are very important but highly unde...
Positive Externality, Increasing Returns, and the Rise in Cybercrimes 2009 2847 The meteoric rise in cybercrime has been an issue of pressing concern to our society. According to Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), nine out of 10 U.S. companies experienced computer security incidents in 2005 which led to a loss of $67.2 billi...
Privacy and Security Aspects of Social Media: Institutional and Technological Environment 2012 1920 Legitimate as well as illegitimate organizations and entities are gaining access to information about social media (SM) users through illegal, extralegal, and quasi-legal means. Worse still, many organizations and individuals using SM have become tar...
Privacy and Security Aspects of Social Media: Institutional and Technological Environment 2011 61 Legitimate as well as illegitimate organizations and entities are gaining access to information about social media (SM) users through illegal, extralegal, and quasi-legal means. Worse still, many organizations and individuals using SM have become tar...
Privacy and Security Issues in Cloud Computing: The Role of Institutions and Institutional Evolution 2013 4505 Cloud computing is likened and equated to the Industrial Revolution. Its transformational nature is, however, associated with significant security and privacy risks. This paper investigates how the contexts provided by formal and informal institution...
Professional and trade associations in a nascent and formative sector of a developing economy: A case study of the NASSCOM effect on the Indian offshoring industry 2009 1256 As important sources that shape institutional structures in an economy, professional and trade associations play significant roles in bringing and legitimating institutional changes. This paper examines the roles of professional and trade association...
Recent Trends in Export Promotions in the United States 2011 1303 There is significant variation in opinion regarding benefits stemming from the use of export promotion. While promotional strategies are frequently condemned in the press as violations of global trade rules and are sharply criticized by some anti-pov...
Recent U.S. Cybersecurity Policy Initiatives: Challenges and Implications 2015 56 In recent years, the US government has introduced several policy measures aimed at tackling the growing cyberthreats facing the country, but many challenges and concerns could arise as a result of their implementation.
Regulative institutions supporting entrepreneurship in emerging economies: A comparison of China and India 2011 2051 China and India are touted as new entrepreneurship powerhouses. The two countries’ different institutional history and characteristics have led to differences in environments related to entrepreneurship. There are some well-founded rationales as well...
Reliability, Validity, Comparability and Practical Utility of Cybercrime-related Data, Metrics, and Information 2013 633 With an increasing pervasiveness, prevalence and severity of cybercrimes, various metrics, measures and statistics have been developed and used to measure various aspects of this phenomenon. Cybercrime-related data, metrics, and information, however,...
The Simple Economics of Cybercrimes 2006 2146 The characteristics of cybercriminals, cybercrime victims, and law enforcement agencies have a reinforcing effect on each other, leading to a vicious circle of cybercrime. The author builds on key elements of this circle to assess a hacker's cost-ben...
Structural Shifts in the Chinese Software Industry 2005 1525 Following the post-1978 economic and political reforms that provided incentives for private and foreign investments, China has left India behind in terms of almost all economic and technological indicators. Between 1980 and 2002, China’s per capit...
Success of Crowd-Based Online Technology in Fundraising: An Institutional Perspective 2015 112 The use of crowd-based online technology for raising funds is gaining popularity and credibility. This paper seeks to provide a better understanding of the effects of formal and informal institutions on the success of a crowdfunding project. It also ...
What Factors are Driving China’s Mobile Diffusion? 2002 1086 This paper identifies and analyses the forces influencing the rapid mobile diffusion in China. The analysis indicates that major factors influencing the hyperbolic growth rate of mobile technology penetration in China include the influence of Marxist...