|The A-not-B error: Results from a logistic meta-analysis
||A meta-analysis of the A-not-B error was conducted using logistic regression on studies conducted before September 1997 (107 data points). An earlier meta-analysis by Wellman, Cross, and Bartsch revealed that age, delay between hiding and retrieval, ...
|The development of executive function in early childhood
||According to the Cognitive Complexity and Control (CCC) theory, the development of executive function can be understood in terms of age-related increases in the maximum complexity of the rules children can formulate and use when solving problems. Thi...
|The effect of number of A trials on performance on the A-not-B task
||The A-not-B error (Piaget, 1954), which occurs when infants search perseveratively on reversal trials in a delayed-response task, is one of the most widely studied phenomena in developmental psychology. Nonetheless, the effect of A-trial experience o...
|Goal neglect and working memory capacity in 4- to 6-year-old children.
||Goal neglect is the phenomenon of failing to execute the momentary demands of a task despite understanding and being able to recall the task instructions. Successful goal maintenance is more likely to occur in adults with high working memory capacity...
|A hierarchical competing systems model of the emergence and early development of executive function
||The hierarchical competing systems model (HCSM) provides a framework for understanding the emergence and early development of executive function – the cognitive processes underlying the conscious control of behavior – in the context of search for hid...
|The hierarchical competing systems model provides a process account of social decision making.
||We applaud Richardson, Mulvey, and Killen’s  application of the hierarchical competing systems model (HCSM) to models of social decision making. The HCSM is a framework of the development of executive function that was formulated to account for...
|The influence of number of A trials on 2-years-old’s behavior in Two A-Not-B-Type search tasks: A test of the hierarchical competing systems model
||Age-appropriate modifications of the A-not-B task were used to examine 2-year-olds’ search behavior. Several theories predict that A-not-B errors will in-crease as a function of number of A trials. However, the hierarchical competing systems model (M...
|Integration of behavioral frequency and intention information in young children’s trait attributions.
||Two experiments examined three- to six-year-olds' use of frequency and intention information to make trait attributions and behavioral predictions. In experiment 1, participants were told a story about an actor who behaved positively once or four tim...
|Moderate Vagal Withdrawal in 3.5-Year-Old Children is Associated with Optimal Performance on Executive Function Tasks
||Vagal tone (measured via respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA) and vagal withdrawal (measured by decreases in RSA) have been identified as physiological measures of self-regulation, but little is known how they may relate to the regulation of cognitive ...
|Perception of audiovisual rhythm and its invariance in 4- to 10-month-old infants
||This study investigated the perception of complex audiovisual rhythmic patterns in 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-month-old human infants. In Experiment 1, we first habituated infants to an event in which an object could be seen and heard bouncing in a rhythmic ...
|Self-Reflection and the Cognitive Control of Behavior: Implications for Learning
||In this article, we suggest that self-reflection and self-control--studied under the rubric of "executive function" (EF)—have the potential to transform the way in which learning occurs, allowing for the relatively rapid emergence of new behaviors. W...
|Sequence learning in infancy: The independent contributions of conditional probability and pair frequency information
||The ability to perceive sequences is fundamental to cognition. Previous studies have shown that infants can learn visual sequences as early as 2 months of age and it has been suggested that this ability is mediated by sensitivity to conditional proba...
|Toddlers Benefit from Labeling on an Executive Function Search Task
||Although labeling improves executive function (EF) performance in children older than 3 (e.g., Kirkham, Cruess, & Diamond, 2003), the results from studies with younger children have been equivocal (e.g., Sophian & Wellman, 1983). In the present study...
|U-shaped functions: Artifact or hallmark of development?
||States that the articles in this collection consider one very interesting puzzle of development: U-shaped developmental functions. At some point during development, an organism might exhibit what seems like a regression from its expected developmenta...
|Use it or lose it: Examining preschoolers’ difficulty in maintaining and executing a goal
||Individuals with low working memory capacity (e.g. preschoolers) are more prone to goal neglect, or a failure to execute a goal even though it is understood. We examined the role of goal neglect in performance on the Dimensional Change Card Sort by i...