|Age differences in strategic behavior during a computation-based skill acquisition task
||The development of cognitive skills often involves a transition from an effortful and slow rule-based process to a more fluent memory retrieval process, which occurs with repeated practice on relevant problems (Ackerman & Woltz, 1994; Logan, 1988; Ri...
|Age-related differences in practice effects during reading comprehension: Older adults are slower to shift from computation to retrieval
||One of the most robust effects in psychology is the finding that practice yields a negatively accelerated decrease in the time required to perform a task. Speed-ups with practice have been shown in a wide range of cognitive tasks, from mental arithme...
|Are item-level strategy shifts abrupt and collective? Age differences in cognitive skill acquisition
||Item-level analysis allows for the examination of qualitative age and individual differences in skill acquisition, which are obscured when aggregating data across items. In the present study, item-level strategy shifts were generally gradual and vari...
|Cognitive Skill Learning: Age-related differences in the component processes of cognitive skill learning
||Younger and older adults solved novel arithmetic problems and reported the strategies used for obtaining solutions. Age deficits were demonstrated in the latencies for computing and retrieving solutions and in the shift from computation to retrieval....
|Distinguishing age differences in knowledge, strategy use, and confidence during strategic skill acquisition
||The authors examined how age differences in strategy selection are related to associative learning deficits and metacognitive variables, including memory ability confidence. In Experiment 1, increases in memory reliance for performance of the noun-pa...
|Does a time monitoring deficit influence older adults' delayed retrieval shift during skill acquisition?
||The authors evaluated age-related time-monitoring deficits and their contribution to older adults' reluctance to shift to memory retrieval in the noun-pair lookup (NP) task. Older adults (M = 67 years) showed slower rates of response time (RT) improv...
|Metacognitive influences on study time allocation in an associative recognition task: An analysis of adult age differences
||The current study evaluated a metacognitive account of study time allocation, which argues that metacognitive monitoring of recognition test accuracy and latency influences subsequent strategic control and regulation. The authors examined judgments o...
|Metacognitive monitoring and strategic behavior in working memory performance: An examination of adult age differences
||Research indicates that cognitive age differences can be influenced by metacognitive factors. This research has generally focused on simple memory tasks. Age differences in working memory (WM) performance are pronounced, but are typically attributed ...
|Moderation of older adults’ retrieval reluctance through task instructions and monetary incentives
||Previous research using a noun-pair lookup task indicates that older adults delay strategy shift from visual scanning to memory retrieval despite adequate learning, and that this "retrieval reluctance" is related to subjective choice factors. Age dif...
|Strategy shift affordance and strategy choice in young and older adults
||When skill acquisition involves a shift in strategy (such as from rule-based to retrieval-based processing), older adults typically shift later in practice than young adults do. We observed the shift from
scanning-based to memory-based processing in...
|Subjective Learning Discounts Test Type: Evidence from an Associative Learning and Transfer Task
||We evaluated the extent to which memory test format and test transfer influence the dynamics of metacognitive judgments. Participants completed 2 study-test phases for paired-associates, with or without transferring test type, in one of four conditio...