The Diene Effect: The Design, Development, and Mechanistic Investigation of Metal-Catalyzed Diene-yne, Diene-ene, and Diene-allene [2+2+1] Cycloaddition Reactions

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Mitchell Croatt, Assistant Professor (Creator)
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
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Abstract: Metal-catalyzed diene-yne, diene-ene, and diene-allene [2+2+1] cycloaddition reactions provide new methods for the facile construction of highly functionalized five-membered rings. These reactions can be conducted with a variety of substrate substitution patterns and functional groups and often in the absence of solvent. The special reactivity of dienes, a key to enabling or enhancing the effectiveness of the [2+2+1] and other reactions, is significantly different from that of alkynes, alkenes, or allenes. For example, the [2+2+1] reaction of a diene-yne is accelerated compared to that of the corresponding ene-yne. An even more dramatic "diene effect" is found with diene-enes and diene-allenes. While bis-enes and ene-allenes are not reported to yield [2+2+1] cycloadducts, the related diene-enes and diene-allenes undergo efficient [2+2+1] cycloadditions, providing new routes to cyclopentanones and alkylidenecyclopentanones. Mechanistic studies suggest that the unique reactivity observed with dienes arises from their participation in the putative rate-determining reductive elimination step by providing an additional energy-lowering coordination site for the transition metal catalyst.

Additional Information

European Journal of Organic Chemistry January 2010, 19-32.
Language: English
Date: 2010
Cycloaddition, Pauson–Khand reaction, Rhodium, Heterogeneous catalysis, Allenes

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