Analytical development for analysis of American ginseng and multiple agriculturual chemicals from soil

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Michael B. Conine (Creator)
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
Web Site:
Nadja Cech

Abstract: Ginseng has been used for thousands of years as an herbal remedy for many common ailments. Ginsenosides from ginseng have shown a wide range of biological effects, including antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. The goal of this project was to develop a method using electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to identify and quantify seven ginsenosides in ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L., araliaceae). In addition, we sought to compare the quantities of ginsenosides in ginseng plant leaves and roots to determine in what part of the plant these compounds are more prevalent. Unlike other studies, our extraction methodology followed the typical extraction protocol most commonly utilized in the dietary supplement industry. This makes our findings relevant to the dietary supplements industry. The mass spectrometry method employed the negative ion and utilized an acetonitrile/aqueous acetic acid (1%) gradient. With this method, the ginsenosides were detected as negatively charged acetate clusters. Five leaf and their corresponding root extracts of cultivated, mature Panax quinquefolius plants were analyzed for ginsenoside content. It was determined that for ginsenosides Rb2 and Rd, there was a higher content in the leaves as opposed to the roots, while Rb1 was found to be more prevalent in the roots than in the leaves. A separate set of 1-year old ginseng seedling extracts were prepared by our collaborators and the same general trends were observed. These findings indicate that ginseng leaves are a viable source of ginsenosides,which is significant given that native ginseng populations are threatened by overharvesting. PART II: Modern demands on agricultural production for food necessitate the use of pesticides such that without their use, upwards of $40 billion in crops would be lost. In the United States alone, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports an approximate use of 1.1 billion pounds of pesticides each year, approximately 20% of global pesticide usage. This creates a critical need for monitoring the presence of pesticides and their metabolites in soil effectively. Through collaboration with our colleagues at Syngenta Crop Protection, LLC, we have begun to develop a new method for this purpose. Our method is built off of the QuEChERS extraction methodology, and meets the demands for rapidness and cost effectiveness. Traditional methods employ very time consuming and costly sample preparation procedures that are unique to particular analytes. Our new method allows for the simultaneous detection and quantitation of 10 analytes of various chemical families, with the opportunity to expand further. Using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, we are able to detect a number of the pesticides of interest in 1 ppb spikes on soil.

Additional Information

Language: English
Date: 2013
Analysis, Extraction Protocol, Ginseng, Pesticides, QuEChERS, Soil
Ginseng $x Analysis
Ginseng $x Composition
Pesticides $x Environmental aspects $x Measurement

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