Adsorption of aqueous copper on peanut hulls

WCU Author/Contributor (non-WCU co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Kanika Octavia Davis (Creator)
Western Carolina University (WCU )
Web Site:
Carmen Huffman

Abstract: A method was established for measuring the adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution to unmodified and modified peanut hulls at constant temperature and pH. Modification of the hulls was performed by oxidation with alkaline hydrogen peroxide. During the modification process, the hydrogen peroxide solubilizes the lignin component, making the surface more porous which increases the availability of binding sites, while simultaneously oxidizing the cellulose. The oxidation of alcohol groups creates more binding sites by creating functional groups such as COO-, which increases chelation to metal ions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms delignification of the peanut hulls by the disappearance of carboxyl peaks of the modified hulls, which were originally produced from the lignin content. Although, oxidation is not fully confirmed, it is not ruled out because the expected carboxylate peak (1680 cm-1) maybe overshadowed by a broad peak due to OH bending of water adsorbed to the hulls. Hulls adsorbed copper from solutions in the concentration range of 50-1000 ppm of CuCl2. Concentrations of pre- and post-adsorption solutions were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The adsorption isotherms were fit to known two and three-parameter models, evaluated and the binding mechanism was inferred. Maximum surface coverage was 3.5 ± 0.6 mg Cu2+/g hull for unmodified hulls and 11 ± 1 mg Cu2+/g hull for modified hulls. The adsorption for the hulls is best described by the Langmuir model, suggesting monolayer, homogeneous adsorption. With a free energy of adsorption of 10.5 ± 0.9 kJ/mol for unmodified hulls and 14.5 ±0.4 kJ/mol for modified hulls, the process is categorized as chemisorption for both types of hulls. The adsorption for both hulls is also described by the Redlich-Peterson model, giving ß nearer to 1 than 0, which further suggests homogeneous adsorption described by the Langmuir model. After rinsing the hulls, scanning electron microscopy images coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that the percentage of copper on the modified hulls (2.5 %) was greater than on the unmodified hulls (1.6 %). This study concluded that the adsorption of copper using peanut hulls is a potential method for wastewater treatment and delignification and oxidation of the hulls increases the adsorption capacity approximately three-fold.

Additional Information

Language: English
Date: 2014
Adsorption, Biosorption, Copper, Environmental Remediation, Peanut Hull, Surface
Copper -- Absorption and adsorption
Peanuts -- Utilization
Sewage -- Purification -- Technological innovations

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