Teacher beliefs regarding grade retention based on type of academic difficulties demonstrated : a pilot study

WCU Author/Contributor (non-WCU co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Sean Michael Clymer (Creator)
Western Carolina University (WCU )
Web Site: http://library.wcu.edu/
Lori Unruh

Abstract: Academic failure has been shown to be both positively and negatively associated with a variety of different factors including school and classroom influences, home influences, student academic history, and student behavioral history (Casillas et al., 2012; Hattie, 2009; Lucio, Hunt, & Bornovalova, 2011; Marchant, Paulson, & Shunk, 2006; Richman, Bowen, & Woolley, 2004). One common intervention used in response to academic failure is retaining a student in grade. This is a pilot study designed to identify whether teacher beliefs regarding the effectiveness of retaining children differ based on reasons for academic failure and whether these differences are consistent across elementary and secondary level teachers with similar beliefs regarding retention. While 146 participants identified themselves as regular education teachers (from kindergarten to twelfth grade) willing to participate in the study, total scores were obtained for only 53 of these teachers. Participants came from a school district in the Southeastern United States. The teachers were asked to complete a demographic survey, academic failure scenarios, and a retention beliefs survey. One-way between groups ANOVAs were conducted to examine the relationships between grade level taught and retention effectiveness, promotion effectiveness, and overall retention beliefs scores, along with the relationships between total retention and promotion effectiveness scores and each of the Academic Failure Scenarios. No significant differences in total retention effectiveness scores for the three grade levels existed for the Academic Failure Scenarios. In terms of differences across grade levels on total promotion effectiveness scores for each scenario, a significant difference in total promotion effectiveness scores on the school and classroom scenario existed between middle school and high school teachers, with middle school teachers’ ratings being significantly more positive than high school teachers’ ratings. Additionally, total retention effectiveness scores were significantly higher for school and classroom influences than academic, home, and behavioral influences. Total promotion effectiveness scores were significantly lower for behavioral influences than school and classroom, home, and academic influences. Finally, high school teachers were found to have more positive retention beliefs than elementary school teachers.

Additional Information

Language: English
Date: 2013
Academic Failure, K-12, Promotion, Retention, Teacher Beliefs
Teachers -- North Carolina -- Nash County -- Attitudes
Grade repetition -- North Carolina -- Nash County -- Evaluation

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