|Brevenal inhibits Pacific ciguatoxin-1B-induced neurosecretion from bovine chromaffin cells
||Ciguatoxins and brevetoxins are neurotoxic cyclic polyether compounds produced by dinoflagellates, which are responsible for ciguatera and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) respectively. Recently, brevenal, a natural compound was found to specific...
|Characterization of marine aerosol for assessment of human exposure to brevetoxins
||Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico are commonly formed by the fish-killing dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, which produces nine potent polyether brevetoxins (PbTxs). Brevetoxins can be transferred from water to air in wind-powered white-capped waves. Inha...
|A competitive ELISA to detect brevetoxins from Karenia brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve) in seawater, shellfish, and mammalian body fluid
||We developed a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to analyze brevetoxins,
using goat anti-brevetoxin antibodies obtained after immunization with keyhole limpet hemocyanin-
brevetoxin conjugates, in combination with a three-step s...
|Effects of inhaled brevetoxins in allergic airways: Toxin–allergen interactions and pharmacologic intervention
||During a Florida red tide, brevetoxins produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis become aerosolized and cause airway symptoms in humans, especially in those with pre-existing airway disease (e.g., asthma). To understand these toxin-induced airway...
|Indicators of ocean health and human health: Developing a research and monitoring framework--Commentary
||We need to critically assess the present quality of the marine ecosystem, especially the connection
between ecosystem change and threats to human health. In this article we review the current state
of indicators to link changes in marine organisms ...
|Initial evaluation of the effects of aerosolized Florida red tide toxins (brevetoxins) in persons with asthma
||Florida red tides annually occur in the Gulf of Mexico, resulting from blooms of the marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. K. brevis produces highly potent natural polyether toxins, known as brevetoxins, that activate voltage-sensitive sodium channel...
|New fish-killing alga in coastal Delaware produces neurotoxins
||Ten fish mortality events, involving primarily Atlantic menhaden, occurred from early July
through September 2000 in several bays and creeks in Delaware, USA. Two events involved large
mortalities estimated at 1–2.5 million fish in Bald Eagle Creek...
|Occupational exposure to aerosolized brevetoxins during Florida red tide events: effects on a healthy worker population
||Karenia brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve) is a marine dinoflagellate responsible for red tides that form in the Gulf of Mexico. K. brevis produces brevetoxins, the potent toxins that cause neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. There is also limited infor...
|Oceans and human health: A new era of environmental opportunities
||The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has supported environmental health sciences that overlap with ocean science questions and resources since its inception. The second NIEHS director, David Rall, and NIEHS’s third director...
|Overview of aerosolized Florida red tide toxins: Exposures and effects
||Florida red tide is caused by Karenia brevis, a dinoflagellate that periodically blooms, releasing its
potent neurotoxin, brevetoxin, into the surrounding waters and air along the coast of the Gulf of
Mexico. Exposure to Florida red tide toxins has...