International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: nutritional considerations for single-stage ultra-marathon training and racing

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Abstract: Abstract Background In this Position Statement , the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review of the literature pertinent to nutritional considerations for training and racing in single-stage ultra-marathon. Recommendations for Training. i) Ultra-marathon runners should aim to meet the caloric demands of training by following an individualized and periodized strategy , comprising a varied , food-first approach; ii) Athletes should plan and implement their nutrition strategy with sufficient time to permit adaptations that enhance fat oxidative capacity; iii) The evidence overwhelmingly supports the inclusion of a moderate-to-high carbohydrate diet (i.e. , ~€‰60% of energy intake , 5-8€‰g·kgˆ’€‰1·dˆ’€‰1) to mitigate the negative effects of chronic , training-induced glycogen depletion; iv) Limiting carbohydrate intake before selected low-intensity sessions , and/or moderating daily carbohydrate intake , may enhance mitochondrial function and fat oxidative capacity. Nevertheless , this approach may compromise performance during high-intensity efforts; v) Protein intakes of ~€‰1.6€‰g·kgˆ’€‰1·dˆ’€‰1 are necessary to maintain lean mass and support recovery from training , but amounts up to 2.5€‰g.kgˆ’€‰1·dˆ’€‰1 may be warranted during demanding training when calorie requirements are greater; Recommendations for Racing. vi) To attenuate caloric deficits , runners should aim to consume 150-400€‰Kcal·hˆ’€‰1 (carbohydrate , 30-50€‰g·hˆ’€‰1; protein , 5-10€‰g·hˆ’€‰1) from a variety of calorie-dense foods. Consideration must be given to food palatability , individual tolerance , and the increased preference for savory foods in longer races; vii) Fluid volumes of 450-750€‰mL·hˆ’€‰1 (~€‰150-250€‰mL every 20€‰min) are recommended during racing. To minimize the likelihood of hyponatraemia , electrolytes (mainly sodium) may be needed in concentrations greater than that provided by most commercial products (i.e. , >€‰575€‰mg·Lˆ’€‰1 sodium). Fluid and electrolyte requirements will be elevated when running in hot and/or humid conditions; viii) Evidence supports progressive gut-training and/or low-FODMAP diets (fermentable oligosaccharide , disaccharide , monosaccharide and polyol) to alleviate symptoms of gastrointestinal distress during racing; ix) The evidence in support of ketogenic diets and/or ketone esters to improve ultra-marathon performance is lacking , with further research warranted; x) Evidence supports the strategic use of caffeine to sustain performance in the latter stages of racing , particularly when sleep deprivation may compromise athlete safety.

Additional Information

Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2019 Nov 07;16(1):50
Language: English
Date: 2019

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