The influence of abnormal sleep durations and physical activity on serum uric acid levels among a sample of adolescents

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Josi R. Gabaldon (Creator)
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
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Laurie Wideman

Abstract: Sleep is a restorative process acting to conserve energy and is a vital component of human health, especially during adolescence. It is recommended that adolescence sleep 8-10 hours a night. Abnormal amounts of sleep, either not enough or too much, as well as physical inactivity contributes to a higher risk of poor health outcomes (i.e. inflammation, cardiovascular disease risk and cardiometabolic risk) and a higher prevalence of mortality at a young age. Serum uric acid (UA), a by-product of purine metabolism and an acute inflammatory marker, has been shown to be associated with cardiometabolic disease risk. Between the ages of 15-17, levels of UA reach adult values (5.5 mg/dL for men and 4.0 mg/dL for females), with hyperuricemia generally defined as a level = 7.0 mg/dL for men and = 6.0 mg/dL for women. Studies investigating sleep and UA among adolescents remain scarce, but existing literature suggests that high UA is associated with sleep duration and other sleep variables. However, more research is needed to understand how physical activity (PA) and sleep may improve UA levels among adolescents and young adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of abnormal sleep durations and PA levels on UA among adolescents in an ongoing longitudinal study of self regulation and cardiometabolic risks, also known as Right Track (RT). Data for this research were collected from a sample of adolescents (16 to 19 years or older), participating in a longitudinal study called RT Health (RTH). Sleep was assessed using the validated 19-item questionnaire Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and PA was assessed using the Godin-Shephard Leisure-Time PA Questionnaire (GSLTPAQ). Lastly, UA concentration was measured from fasted serum samples using the colorimetric QuantiChrom™ Kit. Due to different patterns of missing data across time, N’s varied across analyses. A Pearson’s bivariate correlations was conducted and found that at age 17, UA was negatively correlated with females (r=-0.438, p< 0.001), optimal sleep durations were negatively correlated (r=-0.226, p=0.012), and raw individualized BMI was positively correlated (r=0.386, p<0.001). Conversely, only UA levels in females (r=-0.495, p<0.001) were negatively correlated with age 19 UA. A hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between PA and UA. No association was found between strenuous PA and UA, even after controlling for race-ethnicity and sex. An ANCOVA compared values of mean UA between adolescents who had optimal sleep durations (8-10 hours) to those who had abnormal durations. After controlling for covariates, a significant interaction between sleep duration with sex was observed, indicating that males with abnormal sleep durations had significantly higher mean UA (p=0.022). An ANOVA was conducted to examine adolescents with lower sleep quality [PSQI score > 5] compared to those who had higher sleep quality [PSQI score = 5]. Results showed that the poor sleep group (PSQI score > 5) had higher mean UA levels (6.92±1.52 mg/dL) compared to the higher sleep quality group (PSQI score = 5) (6.39±1.64 mg/dL), however, these differences were not statistically significant (t(121)=-1.55, p=0.124). A moderated hierarchical multiple regression analysis was employed to test whether sleep duration and/or strenuous PA at age 17 moderated the link between BMI at age 16 and serum UA levels at age 19. After adjusting for race-ethnicity and sex, neither sleep (b=0.021, p=0.238) nor strenuous PA was a significant moderator (b=-0.011, p=0.410) of the relation between BMI and UA. Overall, these findings provide preliminary insight on how sleep duration, sleep quality, and strenuous PA may influence UA levels among adolescents. Because the literature indicates that multiple factors contribute to UA levels, the null findings suggest that these relations may not hold in adolescents or that more complex regulatory mechanisms exist between UA, sleep and PA. Future research should examine different models and other measures of sleep, PA and obesity (i.e. body fat percent). [This abstract has been edited to remove characters that will not display in this system. Please see the PDF for the full abstract.]

Additional Information

Language: English
Date: 2019
Adolescents, BMI, Cardiometabolic Risk, Physical Activity, Sleep, Uric Acid
Sleep disorders in adolescence $x Health aspects
Exercise for youth $x Health aspects
Uric acid

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