Co-occurring, externalizing, and internalizing symptoms in early childhood: child and contextual factors

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Caitlin Elizabeth Stone (Creator)
Institution
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
Web Site: http://library.uncg.edu/
Advisor
Susan Calkins

Abstract: The goal of this study was to examine patterns of co-occurring, externalizing, and internalizing symptoms across early childhood. These constructs, along with child emotionality, maternal emotion socialization (ES), and child emotion expression were assessed in a sample of 435 children at ages 2, 4, 5, and 7. Cross-sectional multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed. At age 2, compared to the internalizing group, the co-occurring group was higher on anger proneness, but lower on social fearfulness. Compared to the externalizing group, the co-occurring group was higher on social fearfulness. At age 4, the co-occurring group did not differ significantly from the internalizing group. At age 5, the co-occurring group did not differ significantly from the externalizing group. At age 7, the co-occurring group was lower on fear than the internalizing group. Latent transition analyses were performed to create both 2- and 3- class models representing longitudinal group patterns. These patterns of change were compared. In the 2-class model, the co-occurring stable group was higher on sad/fear expression than the decreasing group. The interaction between supportive ES and anger expression was also significant. In the 3-class model, compared to the high decreasing group, the co-occurring stable group was lower on anger. Compared to the average stable group, the co-occurring group was lower on SES and higher on anger. Results are discussed in the context of existing research on the development of emotional and behavioral problems.

Additional Information

Publication
Dissertation
Language: English
Date: 2009
Keywords
Cooccurring, Externalizing, Internalizing
Subjects
Emotions in children.
Child psychology.
Emotional problems of children.
Behavior disorders in children.
Mother and child $x Psychological aspects.