Development and Evaluation of a Measure of Dangerous, Aggressive, Negative Emotional, and Risky Driving

ASU Author/Contributor (non-ASU co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Mary Ballard Ph.D., Professor (Creator)
Appalachian State University (ASU )
Web Site:

Abstract: The Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI) was created to measure drivers’ self-reported likelihood to drive dangerously. Each DDDI scale (DDDI Total, Aggressive Driving, Negative Emotional Driving, and Risky Driving scales) had strong internal reliability and there was also evidence for the construct validity of the scales. The DDDI was used to examine the relation between dangerous and aggressive driving and dispositional aggression and anger among 119 college students. Males reported significantly more aggressive, risky, and angry driving than did females. Males and females reported similar levels of dangerous driving and negative emotions while driving. Dangerous driving was positively related to traffic citations and causing accidents. The DDDI will be useful as a research instrument to examine dangerous driving.

Additional Information

Dula, C. S., & Ballard, M. E. (2003). Development and evaluation of a measure of dangerous, aggressive, negative emotional, and risky driving. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33(2): 263-282. (Feb 2003) Published by Wiley-Blackwell (1559-1816). DOI: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2003.tb01896.x The definitive version is available at
Language: English
Date: 2003

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