Disruption of mitochondria during tocotrienol-induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
George Loo, Professor (Creator)
Institution
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
Web Site: http://library.uncg.edu/

Abstract: Tocotrienols, which are Vitamin E isoforms, are known to inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells due partly to apoptosis. However, the characterization of tocotrienol-induced apoptosis is incomplete, particularly what happens during the initiation phase that precedes execution of the cells. The objective of this study was to clarify the apoptotic effects of tocotrienols, with especial emphasis in determining if the mitochondria-mediated death pathway is activated when human breast cancer cells are incubated with a specific tocotrienol isomer. During incubation with γ-tocotrienol, MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells showed membrane blebbing, and apoptotic bodies were present. Upon 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining of the cells, chromatin condensation and fragmentation were observed. Additionally, the annexin V-binding assay detected the translocation of membrane phospholipid during earlier analysis of the cells. Taken together, these results further establish that γ-tocotrienol can induce apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. To help elucidate how γ-tocotrienol induced the apoptosis, some important parameters related to the mitochondria-mediated death pathway were examined next. In γ-tocotrienol-treated cells, the mitochondria were disrupted. Collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential was detected, and cytochrome c was released later from mitochondria. However, expression of Bax and Bcl-2 (mRNA and protein) did not change. Furthermore, poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase cleavage was not detected, suggesting that caspases were not involved in the γ-tocotrienol-induced apoptosis. These results imply that cytochrome c is not the critical protein released from mitochondria that triggers γ-tocotrienol-induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells.

Additional Information

Publication
Biochemical Pharmacology 67, 315-324.
Language: English
Date: 2004
Keywords
Apoptosis, Cytochrome c, Mitochondria, Mitochondrial membrane potential, Mitochondrial permeability transition, Tocotrienols