Actin-Activation of Myosin Heavy Chain Kinase A in Dictyostelium: A biochemical mechanism for the spatial regulation of myosin II filament disassembly

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Paul A. Steimle, Assistant Professor (Creator)
Institution
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
Web Site: http://library.uncg.edu/

Abstract: Studies in Dictyostelium discoideum have established that the cycle of myosin II bipolar filament assembly and disassembly controls the temporal and spatial localization of myosin II during critical cellular processes, such as cytokinesis and cell locomotion. Myosin heavy chain kinase A (MHCK A) is a key enzyme regulating myosin II filament disassembly through myosin heavy chain phosphorylation in Dictyostelium. Under various cellular conditions, MHCK A is recruited to actin-rich cortical sites and is preferentially enriched at sites of pseudopod formation, and thus MHCK A is proposed to play a role in regulating localized disassembly of myosin II filaments in the cell. MHCK A possesses an aminoterminal coiled-coil domain that participates in the oligomerization, cellular localization, and actin binding activities of the kinase. In the current study, we show that the interaction between the coiled-coil domain of MHCK A and filamentous actin leads to an ~40-fold increase in the initial rate of kinase catalytic activity. Actin-mediated activation of MHCK A involves increased rates of kinase autophosphorylation and requires the presence of the coiled-coil domain. Structure-function analyses revealed that the coiled-coil domain alone binds to actin filaments (apparent KD = 0.9 µM) and thus mediates the direct interaction with F-actin required for MHCK A activation. Collectively, these results indicate that MHCK A recruitment to actin-rich sites could lead to localized activation of the kinase via direct interaction with actin filaments, and thus this mode of kinase regulation may represent an important mechanism by which the cell achieves localized disassembly of myosin II filaments required for specific changes in cell shape.

Additional Information

Publication
Journal of Biological Chemistry. January 28, 280:2879 – 2887
Language: English
Date: 2005
Keywords
Dictyostelium discoideum, myosin II, bipolar filament assembly, Actin-Activation