Source of reinforcement as a potential factor in Women's sport involvement

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Joan M. Stauss (Creator)
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
Web Site:
Pearl Berlin

Abstract: Two questionnaires were administered to 94 intercollegiate women athletes to determine whether or not source of reinforcement could be considered to be a factor in women's sport involvement. Athletes were investigated as a total group and also in three subgroup categories: (a) individual sport participants; (b) team sport participants; and (c) those participating in both team and individual sports. Rotter's (1966) I-E Scale and a modification of that scale, the Sport I-E Scale, were the instruments used to generate data for this research. The investigator administered the questionnaires to the athletes who were from institutions having bona fide membership in SIAW. Differences in scores were determined by calculating critical ratios and one-way analyses of variance. Results of the study indicated that: (a) women athletes do not differ from other college women in their expectancy for source of reinforcement in a general situation; and (b) women athletes demonstrate a significantly greater degree of belief in internal control of reinforcement within the sport situation than in the general situation. These findings were consistent for the total group of athletes as well as for the three subgroups. There were no significant differences among the subgroups on either of the two instruments utilized in the study. It was concluded that intercollegiate women athletes could not be differentiated from other college females in relation to source of reinforcement.

Additional Information

Language: English
Date: 1975

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