Infant temperament moderates associations between childcare type and quantity and externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 2 ½ years

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Esther M. Leerkes, Professor (Creator)
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
Web Site:

Abstract: This study tested interactive effects of quantity and type (center-based versus other) of non-parental care, and infant temperament, on children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 2 ½, controlling for childcare quality. Sixty-four mothers and children participated. Mothers rated depressive symptoms prenatally, infant temperament at 5 months, childcare quality and child behavior at 2 ½ years, and reported childcare arrangements. At 6 months, infants were videotaped to obtain a measure of activity in response to novelty. Based on ANCOVA, long hours in non-parental care were associated with: (1) more externalizing for children in center care identified as easily frustrated as infants; and (2) more internalizing for children identified as both highly distressed and highly active in response to novelty as infants. Children in higher quality childcare were less externalizing and internalizing than those in lower quality childcare; this effect remained significant with all other variables controlled.

Additional Information

Infant Behavior & Development, 28, 20-35
Language: English
Date: 2005
Childcare quantity, Center-based childcare, Infant temperament, Externalizing/internalizing

Email this document to