Effects of contingent and noncontingent social reinforcement on performance of children in a ball-striking skill

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Nancy Jo Bailey (Creator)
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
Web Site: http://library.uncg.edu/
E. Doris McKinney

Abstract: The study was conducted to determine effects of contingent and noncontingent social reinforcement on preschool children performing a ball-striking skill. Answers to the following questions were sought: (1) Do the performance results of practice accompanied by contingent social reinforcement differ from the results of practice accompanied by noncontingent social reinforcement?  (2) Do levels of performance, as measured by the number of target hits, the distance at which the target is hit, and form consistency scores, increase with practice? (3) Do children who are high achievers in hitting the target differ from low achievers in form consistency? Twelve preschool children, enrolled in the Experimental Kindergarten at the Institute for Child and Family Development at The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, served as subjects for the study. The nine boys and three girls were matched for age, sex, and pretest scores, and then randomly assigned to one of three groups. Subjects in two groups practiced the skill individually with praise given contingently or noncontingently in a counterbalanced order. Subjects in the third group served as a no-practice control. Practice periods were distributed over four weeks. All subjects were tested at the end of the second and the fourth week.

Additional Information

Language: English
Date: 1974
Physical education for children $x Psychological aspects
Motor ability in children $x Psychological aspects
Motor learning $x Psychological aspects

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