The Effect Of Toe-In/Toe-Out Variation On Locomotion: A Comprehensive Review

ASU Author/Contributor (non-ASU co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Sarah Irsik (Creator)
Appalachian State University (ASU )
Web Site:
Herman Werkhoven

Abstract: Gait modifications can alter energy demands and cost of transport. Specifically, alterations in toe-in and toe-out alignment have been found to affect force production abilities during gait. However, the terminology used when describing alterations in toe-in/toe-out alignment is somewhat differential. The aims of this thesis were to conduct a literature review to define terminology associated with toe-in/toe-out gait as well as determine implications on force production, injury, disability, trainability, performance, and analyze possibilities for further investigations. Reference articles were collected from journal databases such as PubMed,Web of Science, Google Scholar, and SPORTDiscuss, by searching for studies related to intoeing gait, foot progression angle, and metatarsophalangeal joint during running. After reviewing the literature it was concluded that toe-in/toe-out modification could alter the gear ratio of the foot and result in a more mechanically advantageous gait pattern. Further inquiries are necessary to determine the exact parameters for degrees of intoeing and outtoeing that are beneficial, as well as its impact on performance during different phases of gait movement patterns.

Additional Information

Honors Project
Irsik, S. (2017). "The Effect Of Toe-In/Toe-Out Variation On Locomotion: A Comprehensive Review." Unpublished Honors Thesis. Appalachian State University, Boone, NC.
Language: English
Date: 2017
Intoeing and outtoeing, Foot progression angle, Gait modification, Metatarsophalangeal joint and force production

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