A Preliminary Multifactorial Approach Describing the Relationships Among Lower Extremity Alignment, Hip Muscle Activation, and Lower Extremity Joint Excursion

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Randy J. Schmitz, Associate Professor (Creator)
Sandra J. Shultz, Professor and Chair (Creator)
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
Web Site: http://library.uncg.edu/

Abstract: Context: Multiple factors have been suggested to increase the risk of faulty dynamic alignments that predict noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury. Few researchers have examined this relationship using an integrated, multifactorial approach.Objective: To describe the relationship among static lower extremity alignment (LEA), hip muscle activation, and hip and knee motion during a single-leg squat.Design: Descriptive laboratory study.Setting: Research laboratory.Patients or Other Participants: Thirty men (age = 23.9 ± 3.6 years, height = 178.5 ± 9.9 cm, mass = 82.0 ± 14.1 kg) and 30 women (age = 22.2 ± 2.6 years, height = 162.4 ± 6.3 cm, mass = 60.3 ± 8.1 kg).Main Outcome Measure(s): Pelvic angle, femoral anteversion, quadriceps angle, tibiofemoral angle, and genu recurvatum were measured to the nearest degree; navicular drop was measured to the nearest millimeter. The average root mean square amplitude of the gluteus medius and maximus muscles was assessed during the single-leg squat and normalized to the peak root mean square value during maximal contractions for each muscle. Kinematic data of hip and knee were also assessed during the single-leg squat. Structural equation modeling was used to describe the relationships among static LEA, hip muscle activation, and joint kinematics, while also accounting for an individual's sex and hip strength.Results: Smaller pelvic angle and greater femoral anteversion, tibiofemoral angle, and navicular drop predicted greater hip internal-rotation excursion and knee external-rotation excursion. Decreased gluteus maximus activation predicted greater hip internal-rotation excursion but decreased knee valgus excursion. No LEA characteristic predicted gluteus medius or gluteus maximus muscle activation during the single-leg squat.Conclusions: Static LEA, characterized by a more internally rotated hip and valgus knee alignment and less gluteus maximus activation, was related to commonly observed components of functional valgus collapse during the single-leg squat. This exploratory analysis suggests that LEA does not influence hip muscle activation in controlling joint motion during a single-leg squat.

Additional Information

Journal of Athletic Training. 2011; 46(3):246-256.
Language: English
Date: 2011
knee injuries, anterior cruciate ligament, risk factors, posture, malalignment

Email this document to