Being alone, playing alone and acting alone: Distinguishing among reticence, and passive- and active-solitude in young children.

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Susan D. Calkins, Professor (Creator)
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
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Abstract: Three forms of solitude were studied in young children—reticence (onlooker and unoecupied behavior), solitary-passive behavior (solitary-constructive and -exploratory play), and solitary-active behavior (solitary-functional and -dramatic play). 48 4-year-old children grouped in quartets of same-sex unfamiliar peers were observed in several situations. Mothers completed the Colorado Temperament Inventory. Results indicated that (1) solitary-passive, solitary-active, and reticent behaviors were nonsignificantly intercorrelated; (2) retieenee was stable and associated with the demonstration of anxiety and hovering near others, whereas solitary-passive and solitary-aetive play were stable yet unrelated to anxiety and hovering; (3) reticence during free play was generally assoeiated with poor performance and displays of wariness in several other soeial situations, while solitary-passive and -active play were not; (4) reticence was associated with maternal ratings of child shyness, while solitary-active behavior was associated with maternal ratings of impulsivity. Results are discussed in terms of the underlying mechanisms associated with reticence and passive and active withdrawal.

Additional Information

Child Development 65, 129-137.
Language: English
Date: 1994
Reticence, Solitary-passive behavior, Solitary-active behavior, 4-year-old children

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