|Characters as Groups: A New Approach to Morphological Characters in Phylogenetic Analysis
||A new method for working with morphological characters is described and explored in experiments using human participants. The method uses direct comparison and sorting of images to produce hierarchical character-cladograms. A character-cladogram is a...
|Complex Data Produce Better Characters
||Abstract: Two studies were conducted to explore the use of complex data in character description and hybrid identification. In order to determine if complex data allow the production of better characters, eight groups of plant systematists were given...
|Detection of the Dinozoans Pfiesteria piscicida and P. shumwayae: A Review of Detection Methods and Geographic Distribution
||Molecular methods, including conventional PCR, real-time PCR, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, fluorescent fragment detection PCR, and fluorescent in situ hybridization, have all been developed for use in identifying and studying the distribu...
|Effects of Causal Networks on the Structure and Stability of Resource Allocation Trait Correlations
||Discovering the mechanisms by which genetic variation influences phenotypes is integral to understanding life-history evolution. Models describing causal relationships among traits in a developmental hierarchy provide a functional basis for understan...
|Game theoretic model of brood parasitism in a dung beetle Onthophagus Taurus
||We present a game theoretic model of brood parasitism in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus. Female O. taurus engage in brood parasitism when they attack a brood ball made by another female, destroy the existing egg and place one of their own eggs to...
|Genetic Basis of Local Adaptation and Flowering Time Variation in Arabidopsis lyrata
||Understanding how genetic variation at individual loci contributes to adaptation of populations to different local environments is an important topic in modern evolutionary biology. To date, most evidence has pointed to conditionally neutral quantita...
|Local adaptation, phenotypic differentiation and hybrid fitness in diverged natural populations of Arabidopsis lyrata
||Selection for local adaptation results in genetic differentiation in ecologically important traits. In a perennial, outcrossing model plant Arabidopsis lyrata, several differentiated phenotypic traits contribute to local adaptation, as demonstrated b...
|On Deterministic and Stochastic Models of Kleptoparasitism
||Kleptoparasitism, the stealing of food items, is a common biological phenomenon that has been studied mostly with the help of deterministic dynamics for infinite populations. The infinite population assumption takes the models far from the biological...
|Partitioning adaptive differentiation across a patchy landscape: shade avoidance traits in Impatiens capensis
||Adaptation to different habitat types across a patchy landscape may either arise independently in each patch or occur due to repeated colonization of each patch by the same specialized genotype. We tested whether open- and closed-canopy forms of Impa...
|Paths to Selection on Life History Loci in Different Natural Environments Across the Native Range of Arabidopsis thaliana
||Selection on quantitative trait loci (QTL) may vary among natural environments due to differences in the genetic architecture of traits, environment-specific allelic effects or changes in the direction and magnitude of selection on specific traits. T...
|Taxonomy of Pfiesteria (Dinophyceae)
||The dinoflagellate species originally described as Pfiesteria shumwayae Glasgow et Burkholder, recently transferred to a new genus, Pseudopfiesteria Litaker et al., is reclassified into the redefined genus Pfiesteria Steidinger et Burkholder, as Pfie...
|Timing of shoot development transitions affects degree of perenniality in Arabidopsis lyrata (Brassicaceae)
||BackgroundPerenniality is best understood in quantitative terms, involving the relationship betweenproduction vs. turnover of meristems, biomass, or energy reserves. Previous quantitative traitlocus (QTL) studies using divergent populations of the pe...