William M. Adams

Dr. Adams is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Kinesiology at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro where he also serves as the Program Director for the Master of Science in Athletic Training Program and Director of the Hydration, Environment and Thermal. (H.E.A.T.) Stress Lab. Dr. Adams’ research interests are focused on optimizing human health and performance. Specifically, his interests lie in determining the role of habitual fluid intake on health and wellness, investigating the various facets of exertional heat stroke, and maximizing athletic performance. He has been either a lead or co-author on over 60 publications in both peer-reviewed scientific journals and edited textbooks on topics related to exertional heat stroke, maximizing athletic performance in the heat, hydration on human health and performance, and preventing sudden death in sport and physical activity. Dr. Adams has been a licensed Athletic Trainer since 2010 and has worked clinically in collegiate and secondary school settings. He also has clinical experience with mass medical events such as the Boston Marathon, Marine Corps Marathon, Vermont City Marathon, Lake Placid Ironman, Beach to Beacon Road Race and Falmouth Road Race, where he has successfully treated more than 55 cases of exertional heat stroke.

There are 39 included publications by William M. Adams :

TitleDateViewsBrief Description
An Alternative Method for Treating Exertional Heat Stroke: Tarp Assisted Cooling 2019 18 Exertional heat stroke, defined as a body temperature greater than 40°C to 40.5°C (104°F to 105°F) with associated central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, is a medical emergency, and can lead to long-term complications or death without prompt recog...
Analysis of states' progress towards and barriers to health and safety policy implementation for secondary school athletic 2019 68 Context: Implementation of health and safety best practices for the leading causes of sudden death and catastrophic injury has been shown to mitigate risk. However, to our knowledge, no authors have examined progress toward health and safety policy i...
Assessment of Evidence-Based Health and Safety Policies on Sudden Death and Concussion Management in Secondary School Athletics: A Benchmark Study 2018 39 Context: Implementation of best-practice health and safety policies has been shown to be effective at reducing the risk of sudden death in sport; however, little is known about the extent to which these policies are required within secondary school a...
The Association between Mandated Preseason Heat Acclimatization Guidelines and Exertional Heat Illness during Preseason High School American Football Practices 2019 18 Background: The risk of heat-related illness and death may continue to increase in many locations as a consequence of climate change, but information on the effectiveness of policies to protect populations from the adverse effects of excessive heat i...
Body-Cooling Paradigm in Sport: Maximizing Safety and Performance During Competition 2016 70 Context: Although body cooling has both performance and safety benefits, knowledge on optimizing cooling during specific sport competition is limited. Objectives: To identify when, during sport competition, it is optimal for body cooling and to ident...
Comparison of Esophageal, Rectal, and Gastrointestinal Temperatures During Passive Rest After Exercise in The Heat: The Influence of Hydration 2017 19 Context: It is unknown how valid esophageal, rectal, and gastrointestinal temperatures (TES, TRE, and TGI) compare after exercise-induced hyperthermia under different hydration states. Objective: To examine the differences between TES, TRE, and TGI d...
A Comparison of Gastrointestinal and Rectal Temperature During Passive Rest After a Warm Weather Road Race 2016 28 Context: It has been well established that gastrointestinal temperature (TGI) tracks closely with rectal temperature (TREC) during exercise. However, the field use of TGI pills is still being examined, and little is known about how measurements obtai...
Consensus Statement- PreHospital Care of Exertional Heat Stroke 2018 85 Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is one of the most common causes of sudden death in athletes. It also represents a unique medical challenge to the prehospital healthcare provider due to the time sensitive nature of treatment. In cases of EHS, when cooli...
Deviation from goal pace, body temperature and body mass loss predictors of road race performance 2017 13 Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between pacing, gastrointestinal temperature (TGI), and percent body mass loss (%BML) on relative race performance during a warm weather 11.3 km road race. Design: Observational st...
Early morning training impacts previous night’s sleep in NCAA Division I cross country runners 2019 37 The effects of training time on sleep has been previously studied; however, the influence on sleep in female collegiate cross-country runners is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of training time on self-reported sleep m...
Epidemiology of Sudden Death in Organized Youth Sports in the United States, 2007–2015 2019 33 Context: Sudden death in sport at the high school and collegiate levels has been described extensively in the literature. However, few epidemiologic data exist on the incidence of sudden death specifically in American youth sport before secondary sch...
Exertional heat illness incidence and on-site medical team preparedness in warm weather 2018 37 To investigate the influence of estimated wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and the International Institute of Race Medicine (IIRM) activity modification guidelines on the incidence of exertional heat stroke (EHS) and heat exhaustion (HEx) and the ab...
Exertional Heat Stroke in Secondary School Athletics 2019 36 Exertional heat stroke (EHS) remains one of the leading causes of sudden death in sport despite clear evidence showing 100% survivability with the proper standards of care in place and utilized. Of particular concern are student athletes competing at...
An Exertional Heat Stroke Survivor’s Return to Running: An Integrated Approach on the Treatment, Recovery, and Return to Activity 2016 61 Context: Evidence-based best practices for the recognition and treatment of exertional heat stroke (EHS) indicate that rectal thermometry and immediate, aggressive cooling via cold-water immersion ensure survival from this medical condition. However,...
Factors involved in the onsite management and are of exertional heat stroke in secondary school athletics 2019 2 Exertional heat stroke, defined as an internal body temperature 40.5°C or greater and neuropsychiatric impairment, is caused by an overwhelming of one's thermoregulatory system during physical activity. If not promptly recognized and treated, exertio...
Heat Stroke in Physical Activity and Sport 2014 39 Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is one of the leading causes of sudden death in sport and physical activity. In American Football alone, there have been 46-documented EHS fatalities in the United States between 1995 and 2010. In 2003, National Collegiat...
Heat Stroke in Physical Activity and Sport [Spanish Translation] 2014 16 El golpe de calor por esfuerzo (GCE) es una de las causas principales de muerte súbita durante el deporte y la actividad física. Solamente en el fútbol americano han ocurrido 46 muertes documentadas en los EE.UU. entre 1995 y 2010. En el 2003, la aso...
The Influence of Body Mass Loss on Changes in Heart Rate During Exercise in the Heat: A Systematic Review 2014 77 The purpose of this review was to compare the changes in heart rate (HR) for every 1% change in body mass loss (?BML) in individuals while exercising in the heat. PubMed, SPORTDiscus, ERIC, CINAHL, and Scopus were searched from the earliest entry to ...
The Influence of Compression Socks During a Marathon on Exercise-Associated Muscle Damage 2019 77 Context: Compression socks have become increasingly popular with athletes due to perceived enhancement of exercise performance and recovery. However, research examining the efficacy of compression socks to reduce exercise-associated muscle damage has...
Maximizing Athletic Performance in the Heat 2013 32 Athletes train and perform at optimal levels in cool environments; however, many individuals do not alter their training in hot environments. The purpose of this review is to explore existing research related to enhancing performance in the heat by m...
Organization and Execution of On-site Health Care During Mass Participation Events 2018 32 On-site medical care should be considered essential for mass participation athletic events. Events such as road races, marathons, and triathlons may attract thousands of participants and spectators, which may overwhelm regional health care capabiliti...
Pacing Strategy of a Full Ironman Overall Female Winner on a Course with Major Elevation Changes 2018 42 The purpose of this study was to use a mixed-methods design to describe the pacing strategy of the overall female winner of a 226.3-km Ironman triathlon. During the race, the triathlete wore a global positioning system and heart rate (HR)-enabled wat...
Practical Hydration Solutions for Sports 2019 37 Personalized hydration strategies play a key role in optimizing the performance and safety of athletes during sporting activities. Clinicians should be aware of the many physiological, behavioral, logistical and psychological issues that determine bo...
Preventing Death from Exertional Heat Stroke—The Long Road from Evidence to Policy 2017 42 Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is among the leading causes of sudden death during sport and physical activity. However, previous research has shown that EHS is 100% survivable when rapidly recognized and appropriate treatment is provided. Establishing ...
Reduction in body temperature using hand cooling versus passive rest after exercise in the heat 2016 70 Objectives: To examine the effects of hydration and hand cooling on lowering body temperature after exercise in the heat. Design: Randomized cross-over design. Methods: Nine recreationally active male participants (mean ± SD; age, 24 ± 4; height, 177...
Relationship between heart rate variability and acute:chronic ratio throughout a season in NCAA D1 Men’s Soccer Players 2018 44 The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the relationship between heart rate variability (HRV) and acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR)-based training load (TL) metrics and (b) to examine relationships across various A:C ratio-based TL me...
Relationships between resting heart rate, heart rate variability and sleep characteristics among female collegiate cross-country athletes 2019 26 Even though sleep has been shown to be influenced by athletes’ training status, the association with resting heart rate and heart rate variability remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in and relationships between rest...
Return-to-Activity Following Exertional Heat Stroke 2018 31 Exertional heat stroke, defined as a body temperature greater than 40°C (104°F) to 40.5°C (105°F) with corresponding neuropsychiatric impairment and end-organ dysfunction, is a medical emergency that can lead to long-term complications or death witho...
Round Table on Malignant Hyperthermia in Physically Active Populations: Meeting Proceedings 2017 37 Context: Recent case reports on malignant hyperthermia (MH)-like syndrome in physically active populations indicate potential associations among MH, exertional heat stroke (EHS), and exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER). However, an expert consensus for cl...
The Secondary School Football Coach's Relationship With the Athletic Trainer and Perspectives on Exertional Heat Stroke 2014 31 Context: Prior researchers have examined the first-aid knowledge and decision making among high school coaches, but little is known about their perceived knowledge of exertional heat stroke (EHS) or their relationships with an athletic trainer (AT). ...
Sport Safety Policy Changes: Saving Lives and Protecting Athletes 2016 34 Death during sport or physical activity is a tragic and unexpected event. However, with appropriate evidence-based policies in place, death can often be prevented. The top causes of sudden death in sport and physical activity are sudden cardiac arres...
State-Level Implementation of Health and Safety Policies Pertaining to Preventing Sudden Death and Catastrophic Injury in Secondary School Athletics 2017 37 Background: Sudden death and catastrophic injuries during sport can be attenuated with the implementation of evidence-based health and safety policies. However, the extent of the implementation of these policies within secondary school athletics is u...
State-Level Implementation of Health and Safety Policies to Prevent Sudden Death and Catastrophic Injuries Within Secondary School Athletics: Response 2018 40 We read with attentiveness the letter to the editor regarding our recently published article,1 and we thank the authors for sharing their thoughts. As in every study, there are limitations; however, we also wish to express urgency for the implementat...
Tarp-assisted cooling as a method of whole-body cooling in hyperthermic individuals 2017 17 Study objective: We investigated the efficacy of tarp-assisted cooling as a body cooling modality. Methods: Participants exercised on a motorized treadmill in hot conditions (ambient temperature 39.5°C [103.1°F], SD 3.1°C [5.58°F]; relative humidity ...
The Timing of Exertional Heat Stroke Survival Starts Prior to Collapse 2015 62 Adams et al. (1) reported that secondary school football coaches lacked a fundamental understanding of the causes and symptoms of exertional heat stroke (EHS). This lack of understanding was supported by the coaches’ inability to identify prevention ...
Top ten research questions related to preventing sudden death in sport and physical activity 2017 25 Participation in organized sport and recreational activities presents an innate risk for serious morbidity and mortality. Although death during sport or physical activity has many causes, advancements in sports medicine and evidence-based standards o...
Utility of Thirst as a Measure of Hydration Status Following Exercise Induced Dehydration 2019 80 The purpose of this study was to examine the perception of thirst as a marker of hydration status following prolonged exercise in the heat. Twelve men (mean ± SD; age, 23 ± 4 y; body mass, 81.4 ± 9.9 kg; height, 182 ± 9 cm; body fat, 14.3% ± 4.7%) co...
Validity of core temperature measurements at three rectal depths during rest, exercise, cold water immersion, and recovery 2017 20 Context: No evidence-based recommendation exists regarding how far clinicians should insert a rectal thermistor to obtain the most valid estimate of core temperature. Knowing the validity of temperatures at different rectal depths has implications fo...
Validity of temperature, duration, and vessel seal on 24-hour urinary hydration markers 2019 56 The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of storage temperature, duration, and storage vessel seal on 24 h urinary hydration markers. Twenty-one males (n = 8) and females (n = 13) (mean±SD; age, 24±5 y; body mass, 68.9±24.2 kg; height, 160...