Carol Kline PhD

Associate Professor: PhD Tourism Planning & Policy, North Carolina State University; MS Parks, Recreation, & Tourism Management, North Carolina State University; BA Psychology, Wake Forest University. Research Interests: Research interests focus on tourism planning and development and include tourism entrepreneurship, tourism impacts on communities, and niche tourist markets. Prior to coming to Appalachian, Carol worked at East Carolina's Center for Sustainable Tourism and the Department of Recreation & Leisure Studies. She taught at North Carolina Central University's Hospitality & Tourism Administration program for two years, and worked with Cooperative Extension for ten years to provide outreach on tourism development issues to North Carolina's rural communities. She also served for two years as Director of Tourism for HandMade in America located in Asheville. Carol has consulted in a variety of geographical and cultural settings but is happy to call North Carolina home. She and her family live in Lenoir.

There are 31 included publications by Carol Kline PhD:

TitleDateViewsBrief Description
Attraction Sustainability In North Carolina And Its Impact On Decision-Making 2016 10 The green movement has generated an increase in research on consumer behavior related to green products and services. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors that influence consumer choice regarding sustainable attractions and to develop...
The Battle Of The Socials: Which Socially Symbolic Factors Best Predict Intent To Travel? 2018 4 Tourists are flooded with travel options making competition fierce within their consideration sets. While most research emphasizes the functional attributes of destinations, as narcissism becomes more normalized, it is of increasing interest to exami...
Built Capital As A Catalyst For Community-Based Tourism 2018 5 This article focuses on the role of built capital as a catalyst for the development of other forms of capital in collective community-based tourism projects. As part of a regional initiative, modest built capital projects were implemented in six smal...
Community Development Through Agroecotourism In Cuba: An Application Of The Community Capitals Framework 2016 13 This study explores the relationship between a Cuban organipónico, an urban, organic cooperative farm, and the surrounding community, particularly in regard to increasing agroecotourism. This was examined through the community capitals framework whic...
Complexities Of Tourism Planning And Development In Cuba 2018 4 Within the last ten years, Cuba has undergone many social, economic, and political changes. Since President Raul Castro took the reins from his brother, Fidel Castro, he has restructured several core economic principles within the island nation to al...
Cuba In Transition: Tourism Industry Perceptions Of Entrepreneurial Change 2015 9 The Cuban government is working to create a climate conducive to a strong and sustainable private sector. As state employment declines, many residents are exploring the potential of tourism; Cuban entrepreneurs are interested in expanding beyond pack...
The End Of The Beginning And The Beginning Of The End: The Decline Of Public Agricultural Extension In Ontario 2010 0 Canadian Extension has reached a critical point: the last 20 years have seen drastic reduction in governmental agricultural Extension services in Ontario. This article proposes that the breakdown of the Canadian Extension system has been the result o...
An Exploratory Study Of Expectation–Importance–Performance Analysis With Cultural Tourists In Havana, Cuba 2015 14 Importance–Performance Analysis (IPA) is an efficient method for measuring two dimensions of a person’s attitude on a given topic. The current study added a third dimension, Expectation, to determine if an individual’s expectation about a cultural to...
Exploring Emotional Response To Images Used In Agritourism Destination Marketing 2018 3 The purpose of this study is to explore the role that photography can play in agritourism destination marketing (ADM). The study utilized photo-elicitation and included five focus groups: two farmer groups, two visitors groups, and one of Destination...
Exploring The Expectations And Satisfaction Derived From Volunteer Tourism Experiences 2016 21 The aim of this paper was to examine the satisfaction of voluntourists derived from various aspects of their trip. Framed within the Existence, Relatedness and Growth Theory, the paper examines volunteers’ motivations, expectations and satisfaction b...
Exploring Foodie Segmentation 2015 26 Previous research studies have explored the activities, motivations, and outcomes for the culinary tourist, and researchers have theorized certain segments of culinary travelers (Boniface, 2003; Mitchell, Hall & McIntosh, 2000). Contrasting to this, ...
Fostering Tourism And Entrepreneurship In Fringe Communities: Unpacking Stakeholder Perceptions Towards Entrepreneurial Climate 2018 4 The success of entrepreneurial ventures in tourism is tied to the community ecosystem that supports it. As such, communities are continuing to assess their entrepreneurial climate to identify areas where new programs might enhance entrepreneurial suc...
Funding Sustainable Paddle Trail Development: Paddler Perspectives, Willingness To Pay And Management Implications 2011 4 Paddle sports (kayaking, canoeing) are a growing tourism niche and an activity that can bring sustainable rural tourism development and economic regeneration. Managing sustainable paddle trail growth is complex, involving coordination among governmen...
Gaps And Barriers Along The North Carolina Agri-Food Value Chain 2016 14 Purpose – The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to formulate an exhaustive list of the issues, gaps, and barriers at each level of the agri-food value chain in North Carolina (NC), and second, to identify the issues of greatest importance to i...
Heritage Site Visitation And Attitudes Toward African American Heritage Preservation: An Investigation Of North Carolina Residents 2015 9 Understanding disparities in visitation rates to heritage sites and patterns in public support for preservation and remembrance of African American heritage could greatly inform decision-making and management philosophies of park/historic site operat...
The Influence Of Agritourism On Niche Meats Loyalty And Purchasing 2015 8 Although research has been increasing on agritourism, many questions remain. Studies have indicated that agritourism can bring both economic and noneconomic benefits to farmers and that sustainably raised agriculture products can lead to both health ...
Predictors Of Intention To Travel To Cuba Across Three Time Horizons: An Application Of The Theory Of Planned Behavior 2017 4 As the relationship between Cuba and the United States evolves, many Americans are entertaining the idea of travel to Cuba. This study used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine predictors of US residents’ intentions to travel to Cuba acros...
Property Owners’ Attitudes Toward Sustainable Tourism: Comparing Coastal And Mountain Counties 2016 8 This study explored factors influencing property owners’ attitudes toward tourism development in two very different counties in North Carolina: one coastal (n=854) and one in the mountains (n= 619). Attitudes toward the impact of tourism and sustaina...
Regional Resilience: Opportunities, Challenges And Policy Messages From Western North Carolina 2014 5 This paper explores resiliency theory by assessing the ability of communities to adapt and recover economically and socially after a natural disaster. Community resiliency describes the capacity of finding a new equilibrium that is strengthened from ...
The Roles Of Social Entrepreneurs In Rural Destination Development 2018 5 This paper seeks to explore how social entrepreneurs are relevant to our consideration of rural destination development. While many peripheral rural areas face significant challenges in terms of sustaining communities and attracting tourists it is of...
Rural Tourism And The Craft Beer Experience: Factors Influencing Brand Loyalty In Rural North Carolina, USA 2015 14 Craft or “boutique” breweries are increasing in numbers in the USA, and in other parts of the developed world. Many are located in rural areas, and have become new rural tourism visitor experiences, related to wine tourism and linked to the growth in...
Science And Industry: Sharing Knowledge For Innovation 2014 6 This paper contributes to a better understanding of the absorption of scientific knowledge in tourism innovation processes. Based on a synthesis of the literature and empirical study we present the model of Innovation through Co-creation. The cases o...
Social Movements And Tourism-Related Local Action 2014 11 Social movements often emerge as a response to oppression generated from uncertain economic conditions. This study focuses on the role of HandMade in America, a regional economic development organization, in cultivating the change-agent components of...
Social Network Participation And Coverage By Tourism Industry Sector 2015 23 Although identified as an emerging scientific paradigm, social network research has yet to be developed fully in tourism studies. Social network theory focuses on the ties between actors within a particular network. An individual can influence his or...
Social Return And Intent To Travel 2017 4 In recognition that not all travel experiences are evaluated equally, there is the opportunity for different travel experiences to generate varying levels of “Social Return.” “Social Return” is the amount of positive social feedback that one's social...
A Spatial Analysis Of Tourism, Entrepreneurship And The Entrepreneurial Ecosystem In North Carolina, USA 2014 4 In light of the projected long-term national economic trends, the vulnerability of rural regions, and the difficulty of small businesses to stay solvent, it is imperative to understand the critical elements within a small business’ operating environm...
Sustainable Farm Tourism: Understanding And Managing Environmental Impacts Of Visitor Activities 2007 0 Our nation's rural areas are heavily affected both by sprawl and increased recreational use. Agritourism is rapidly being embraced as a strategy to conserve the family farm, increase revenue, and teach the public about authentic farming life. However...
Tourism Development In The Dominican Republic: An Examination Of The Economic Impact To Coastal Households 2015 10 Coastal tourism projects are promoted in the Dominican Republic as national-level economic development initiatives that will create jobs for local residents, subsequently benefiting the households in these communities. However, the economic benefits ...
Using A Community Tourism Development Model To Explore Equestrian Trail Tourism Potential In Virginia 2015 16 As the tourism industry grows so does the demand by tourists for specialized travel alternatives. One niche market that is growing but has received very little attention in the tourism literature is equestrian tourism. Increased demand makes the deve...
Using Ecological Systems Theory And Density Of Acquaintance To Explore Resident Perception Of Entrepreneurial Climate 2012 3 Using the concepts of Ecological Systems Theory and Density of Acquaintance, this study was developed to explore the relationship between rural North Carolina residents’ characteristics and their perceptions of entrepreneurial climate (e-climate). Th...
Women In Tourism: Shifting Gender Ideology In The DR 2015 7 The purpose of this study is to explore the ways in which the employment of women in the tourism industry has challenged or reinforced the traditional machismo–marianismo gender ideology in the Dominican Republic.Semi-structured individual, coupled, ...