Caroline Smith

Education Postdoctoral Research Fellow, The Pennsylvania State University (2010-2013) Specialization: Thermal and microvascular physiology Ph.D. Loughborough University, UK (2005-2009) Specialization; Thermal Physiology B.Sc. (Hons) Human Biology, Loughborough University, UK (2002-2005) Current Teaching ES 3005: Physiological Assessment ES 2032: Anatomy & Physiology II Professional Affiliations American Physiological Society American College of Sports Medicine Research Interests Examining in vivo and in vitro signaling mechanisms underlying thermoregulatory and microvascular dysfunction in diabetic and cardiovascular disease populations, and the impact of exercise and thermal interventions on vascular responses. Current research studies include examining changes in eccrine sweating and vascular function with heat therapy in hyperglycemic and diabetic patients, and elucidating the mechanisms by which metformin improves vascular function in type II diabetes mellitus.

There are 14 included publications by Caroline Smith :

TitleDateViewsBrief Description
Blood Pressure Normalization Via Pharmacotherapy Improves Cutaneous Microvascular Function Through NO-Dependent And NO-Independent Mechanisms 2017 109 Hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling. Objective: To assess effects of antihypertensive pharmacotherapy on eNOS-and iNOS-dependent mechanisms and maximal vasodilator capacity in the cutaneous microvasculature...
Body Mapping Of Sweating Patterns In Athletes: A Sex Comparison 2012 46 Purpose: Limited regional sweat rate (RSR) data are available for females, with only a small number of sites measured across the body. Similarly, sex differences in sweating concentrate on whole body values, with limited RSR data available. Methods: ...
Body Mapping Of Sweating Patterns In Male Athletes In Mild Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia 2011 56 Regional variation in sweating over the body is widely recognised. However, most studies only measured a limited number of regions, with the use of differing thermal states across studies making a good meta-analysis to obtain a whole body map problem...
Design Data For Footwear: Sweating Distribution On The Human Foot 2013 459 Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide footwear designers, manikin builders and thermo-physiological modellers with sweat distribution information for the human foot. Design/methodology/approach – Independent research from two laboratories...
Effects Of Resistance Exercise Timing On Sleep Architecture And Nocturnal Blood Pressure 2015 152 Short sleep duration and poor quality of sleep have been associated with health risks including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. Prior research has suggested that regular aerobic exercise improves the quality of sleep; however, less is ...
Effects Of Vehicle Microdialysis Solutions On Cutaneous Vascular Responses To Local Heating 2017 36 Microdialysis is a minimally invasive technique often paired with laser Doppler flowmetry to examine cutaneous microvascular function, yet presents with several challenges, including incompatibility with perfusion of highly lipophilic compounds. The ...
Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Mediates Cutaneous Vasodilation During Local Heating And Is Attenuated In Middle-Aged Human Skin 2012 7 Local skin heating is used to assess microvascular function in clinical populations because NO is required for full expression of the response; however, controversy exists as to the precise NO synthase (NOS) isoform producing NO. Human aging is assoc...
Local Tetrahydrobiopterin Administration Augments Reflex Cutaneous Vasodilation Through Nitric Oxide-Dependent Mechanisms In Aged Human Skin 2012 18 Functional constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is required for full expression of reflex cutaneous vasodilation that is attenuated in aged skin. Both the essential cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and adequate substrate concentrations are nece...
Male And Female Upper Body Sweat Distribution During Running Measured With Technical Absorbents 2007 17 Body sweat distribution over the upper body in nine clothed male and female runners of equal fitness while running at 65% VO2max and subsequent 15-min rest in a moderate climate (25°C, 53% rh) was investigated using technical absorbent materials to c...
Non-Uniform, Age-Related Decrements In Regional Sweating And Skin Blood Flow 2013 230 Aging is associated with attenuated thermoregulatory function that varies regionally over the body. Decrements in vasodilation and sweating are well documented with age, yet limited data are available concerning the regional relation between these re...
Regional Relation Between Skin Blood Flow And Sweating To Passive Heating And Local Administration Of Acetylcholine In Young, Healthy Humans 2013 191 Regional variation in sweating over the human body is widely recognized yet variation in vasomotor responses and mechanisms causing this variation remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the relation between regional sweating rates (RSR) and skin...
Responses To Hyperthermia. Optimizing Heat Dissipation By Convection And Evaporation: Neural Control Of Skin Blood Flow And Sweating In Humans 2016 506 Under normothermic, resting conditions, humans dissipate heat from the body at a rate approximately equal to heat production. Small discrepancies between heat production and heat elimination would, over time, lead to significant changes in heat stora...
Rho-Kinase Activity And Cutaneous Vasoconstriction Is Upregulated In Essential Hypertensive Humans 2013 235 Essential hypertension (HT) is associated with endothelial dysfunction augmented vasoconstriction (VC) which may be secondary to increased Rho/Rho-Kinase (ROCK)-dependent mechanisms. Our aim was to assess the in vivo magnitude of cutaneous VC to loca...
Upregulation Of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Contributes To Attenuated Cutaneous Vasodilation In Essential Hypertensive Humans 2011 42 Essential hypertension is a proinflammatory, proconstrictor disease coinciding with endothelial dysfunction and inward vessel remodeling. Using the skin circulation, our aim was to determine whether inducible NO synthase (iNOS) upregulation attenuate...