Approaching Error-Free Customer Satisfaction through Process Change and Feedback Systems

ASU Author/Contributor (non-ASU co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Timothy D. Ludwig Ph.D, Professor (Creator)
Appalachian State University (ASU )
Web Site:

Abstract: Employee-based errors result in quality defects that can often impact customer satisfaction. This study examined the effects of a process change and feedback system intervention on error rates of 3 teams of retail furniture distribution warehouse workers. Archival records of error codes were analyzed and aggregated as the measure of quality. The intervention consisted of a process change where teams of 5 employees who had previously been assigned a specific role within the process were cross-trained to know and help with other team members' functions. Additionally, these teams were given performance feedback on an immediate, daily, and weekly basis. Team A reduced mean errors from 7.47 errors per week during baseline to 3.53 errors per week during the intervention phase. Team B experienced a reduction in mean number of weekly errors from a baseline of 11.39 errors per week to 3.82 errors per week during the intervention phase. Team C did not experience significant error rate reduction.

Additional Information

Berglund, K. M., & Ludwig, T. D. (2009). Approaching Error-Free Customer Satisfaction Through Process Change and Feedback Systems. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 29(1), 19-46. (ISSN: 1540-8604) doi:10.1080/01608060802660140 Published by Routledge / Taylor & Francis. The official version off record is available at:
Language: English
Date: 2009
process change, temporal feedback, cross-training

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