Determination of the relationship between water access and women’s overall happiness, education and income levels in rural households in The Gambia using the UNICEF-MICS data

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Fangshu Chen (Creator)
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
Web Site:
Jigna Dharod

Abstract: This paper aimed to assess water, sanitation, and hygiene services in rural Gambia and to evaluate the association between water access and women’s overall happiness, education, and income levels in rural households. A secondary data analyses of 2018 UNICEF-MICS data was carried out. A total number of 2,202 women aged between 15-49 years old from rural households in The Gambia were included in the study. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The results showed that more than 80% of households had basic access to improved water sources with water-collection time less than 30 minutes for a round trip. However, the majority (73.5%) of the households did not have basic sanitation facilities. Less than half of households had basic handwashing facilities. Results from bivariate analyses indicated that a higher percentage of wealthy households had significantly greater sanitation facilities and water services (58.4% and 8.6% respectively, p<.05). Results from logistic regression showed that women from households who had basic handwashing facilities had a higher probability of being happy compared to women from households who had limited or no handwashing facilities at all (OR:1.369; CI: 1.086-1.725; P<.05). In conclusion, water security plays an integral role in closing the gap between gender inequality and promoting more education and job opportunities for women in rural Gambia.

Additional Information

Language: English
Date: 2022
The Gambia, WASH, Water Insecurity, Women's Education, Women's Happiness, Women's Income level
Water security $z Gambia
Rural women $z Gambia
Happiness $z Gambia
Education $z Gambia
Income $z Gambia

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