Relationship of early infant feeding (breast vs. formula) and fruit and vegetable variety in dietary intakes of 2-3 year olds, as may predict child's BMI z-score

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
LaCrystal A. Strong (Creator)
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
Web Site:
Cheryl Lovelady

Abstract: The theory of breastmilk flavor exposure impacting later dietary variety in children was examined. Dietary intakes of 2-3 year olds of overweight (BMI > or = 25) mothers were analyzed. Mothers reported how the child was fed for the first 3 months. Participants were classified as either fully formula-fed group (FF, n=63) or fully breastfed group (BF, n=123) (mixed-fed group was excluded). Two-day 24-hr dietary recalls were conducted. The number (variety) of different fruits and vegetables (F&V) was counted over 2 days. Reappearing foods were not counted again. Bivariate relationships of maternal BMI, income, education, age, race, and feeding group were analyzed with variety. Variables were then entered into regression models to predict fruit, vegetable, and total F&V variety. In bivariate analysis, variety of fruit was significantly higher in the BF (FF 2.7 +/- 1.5, BF 3.3 +/- 1.5; P=0.02), while neither vegetable (FF 2.8 +/- 1.6; BF 2.4 +/- 1.6), nor total F&V (FF 5.5 +/- 2.4, BF 5.7 +/- 2.3), varieties were significantly different between groups. In multivariate analysis, BF was higher when women were educated (P=0.0005) and had a lower BMI (BF 31.2 +/- 4.8; FF 32.9 +/- 6.3 kg/m2; P=0.04). Maternal BMI was a significant negative predictor of fruit variety, while education was a positive predictor of fruit variety. No variable predicted vegetable variety. Education and BMI also predicted total fruit and vegetable variety (P=0.04, P=0.03). Bivariate analysis showed that maternal education and BMI were the significant predictors of fruit and vegetable intake. Results of this study do not support the theory that exposure to flavors transmitted in breastmilk within the first 3 m of life affect later F&V variety.

Additional Information

Language: English
Date: 2010
BMI, Breastfeeding, Dietary variety, Formula-feeding, Fruit, Vegetable
Infants $x Nutrition.
Children $x Nutrition.
Mother and child.

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