Beyond the Bem Sex-Role Inventory : a reconceptualization of the constructs of "masculinity" and "femininity" and a reexamination of their measurement

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Rose Marie Hoffman (Creator)
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
Web Site:
L. DiAnne Borders

Abstract: Current methods of assessing femininity and masculinity reinforce stereotypical gender roles by continuing to label certain characteristics as "feminine" or "masculine." The assessment of femininity and masculinity in terms of stereotypical gender roles has imposed both subtle and severe limitations upon both sexes. Masculinity and femininity can be reconceptualized in terms of gender identity (Spence, 1984, 1985). Gender self-concept is one component of gender identity, and gender self-confidence can be identified as one aspect of gender self-concept (Lewin, 1984b). As a psychological construct, gender self-confidence is a vehicle by which idiosyncratic definitions of masculinity and femininity can be better understood.

Additional Information

Language: English
Date: 1996
Sex role
Gender identity

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