An investigation of self-efficacy and control theory with elite distance runners

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Jeffrey John Martin (Creator)
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
Web Site:
Diane Gill

Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and private self-consciousness (PSC) in elite distance runners. Ninety -four male and female runners completed biographical, self-efficacy, outcome self-confidence, and private self-consciousness questionnaires before a ten kilometer race. Following the race runners completed performance questionnaires assessing their race time and place, and self-ratings of performance. Correlational analyses indicated that outcome expectations were related to time and private self-consciousness was positively associated with self-ratings of performance for females, but not male runners. Elite female distance runners higher in outcome self-confidence ran faster in their races than runners lower in outcome self-confidence. Runners high in PSC and with strong outcome expectations were more satisfied with their performance based on outcome than were runners lower in private self-consciousness. Similarly, runners with weak self-efficacy expectations and high in PSC, rated their performance based on time and outcome as better than runners lower in PSC. In addition, these same runners missed their time goals by less than runners lower in PSC. These findings provide no support for self-efficacy theory and are mixed in their support of control theory and the role of private self-consciousness.

Additional Information

Language: English
Date: 1992
Running $x Psychological aspects
Runners (Sports) $x Attitudes
Control (Psychology)

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