Sexism in elementary physical education literature : a content analysis

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Kathleen Hildreth (Creator)
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
Web Site:
Celeste Ulrich

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze the current elementary physical education literature and determine whether sexist content was present, and if so whether the sex of the authors had any relationship to the degree or presence of sexist content. After a pilot study was done to evaluate the selected categories, the investigator examined the written content and pictures of twenty-three elementary physical education textbooks. Materials published after 1972, the date of the Title IX passage which barred sex discrimination in the schools, were selected to study. Chi Square statistical analysis as well as percentage comparisons yielded the following results: (1) the sex of the authors did appear to be an influence in the content especially in the categories of teacher pictures and children pictures; and (2) the written content was found to be sexist at a statistically significant level with the exception of pronoun usage. It was concluded that today's elementary physical education literature contains many sexist elements within its content, both in written content and illustrations.

Additional Information

Language: English
Date: 1979
Sexism in textbooks
Sexism in education
Sex discrimination in sports

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