Shull, Richard L.

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There are 19 item/s.

TitleDateViewsBrief Description
Deviations from optimal choice : skilled performance, feedback, and Bayesian decision making 1982 194 In the present study, reinforcement initiated the probabilistic assignment of food to either the right or the left lever and each assigned food was held available. But, if food were assigned to the right lever, a 5-sec minimum waiting time (a DRL 5 s...
Effects of rate, patterning, and contingency of reinforcement upon perceived control and learned helplessness 1979 189 The effects of rate, patterning, and contingency of reinforcement upon ratings of perceived control and subsequent performance on anagrams were explored. Sixty college students learned a pretreatment task and received either contingent or noncontinge...
Partial reinforcement and resistance to extinction 1987 59 Schoenfeld (1950) proposed that manipulations of rates of reinforcement have two conflicting effects on resistance to extinction. Leaner schedules reinforce behavior less frequently, which results in less resistance to extinction. But leaner schedule...
Instructional and trial durations in conditional discrimination 1988 75 Pigeons acquired a conditional discrimination in an autoshaping procedure in which a color (instructional) stimulus signalled which positional (trial) stimulus would be followed by food. The design employed temporal parameters which allowed different...
Pavlovian occasion-setting, attention and observing 1992 56 Six pigeons were exposed to a procedure in which they could peck a white key to "observe" a 6-s keylight (CS) that was immediately followed by food 50% of the time. Another keylight (occasion-setter) was correlated with food 100% of the time, and ill...
A response-initiated differential reinforcement of low rates schedule of reinforcement 1972 60 The purpose of the present research was to study the effects of timing and motivational variables on a two-response DRL schedule. The primary question was whether or not timing behavior and the response-strengthening effects of reinforcement are conf...
Rate constancy : another look at response independence in concurrent schedules 1972 159 The purpose of this study was to re-examine the question of response Independence or response rate constancy in concurrent variable interval schedules of reinforcement. The results of an earlier study (Catania, 1963) Indicated that responding in one ...
The effects of CS and cycle durations on stimulus-elicited keypecking in the pigeon 1977 165 The relative duration of the CS to the inter-US interval has been found to determine the rate of acquisition and rate of maintained keypecking by pigeons in delay conditioning procedures. Also maintenance of keypecking, but not rate of acquisition, d...
Fixed interval reinforcement for a situational response 1974 120 The present study examined fixed interval reinforcement of a situational response in a shuttlebox for pigeons. In Experiment 1 the response, being in the responding color, was reinforced on an FI schedule and compared with behavior generated by a fix...
The effects of temporal and spatial location of a CS paired with food on a pigeon's key-peck response 1979 164 The effects of a classical conditioning procedure on behavior maintained by an operant schedule of reinforcement were studied. A Change in color associated with response-independent food was presented to pigeons at different temporal locations within...
A complex features account of the occasion setting effect 1995 53 The findings of transferability and irreversibility of stimulus function following occasion setting training have been detrimental to compound-stimulus accounts of the occasion setting effect. The purpose of the experiment was to demonstrate that tho...
Effects of probability and duration of reinforcement on choice behavior in discrete trial intervals 1975 65 Pigeons were trained to peck at blue or amber keys presented simultaneously in discrete trials. In the first experiment, there were seven discrete trials with reinforcement scheduled probabilistically every seventh trial in the reinforcement interval...
The effect of fixed and variable blackouts of different durations on responding in fixed interval schedules 1979 177 When the probability of reinforcement varies systematically with elapsed time since some event, rate of responding often varies in a corresponding way. The present experiment investigated whether stimulus events which make equally good predictions of...
Behavioral contrast : distribution of responses and time in a two-component multiple schedule of reinforcement 1974 194 The concurrent properties of component performances on multiple variable-interval schedules of reinforcement were studied in six pigeons under conditions where pecks in each component of a two-component multiple schedule were reinforced according to ...
The effect of feeder duration on fixed-interval performance : context dependencies 1974 85 The present set of experiments investigated the effect on fixed-interval performance of varying feeder duration both between and within sessions. In Exp. 1 only one feeder duration was presented within a session and feeder duration was varied over bl...
Second-order schedules : a comparison of the effects of paired and unpaired brief stimuli on component fixed interval performance 1974 62 Pigeons were exposed to second-order schedules in which completion of a component fixed-interval schedule was reinforced according to a variable-ratio schedule. The completion of each component FI resulted in presentation of either a brief stimulus p...
The effects of a negative contingency between response rate and reinforcement rate on rate of responding 1987 46 If the molar dependency between response rate and reinforcement rate can affect response rates, then responding should decrease when subjects are presented with a schedule which produces a negative contingency between response and reinforcement rates...
Time allocation with concurrent asymmetrical responses 1972 84 The purpose of the present experiment was to examine the effects of concurrent VI-VT response requirements on time allocation. Using a changeover- key procedure pigeons were trained to peck for food on a VI schedule of grain reinforcement in each com...
The effects of a variable-interval changeover contingency on concurrent performances 1972 55 The purpose of this experiment was to assess the effects of a variable-interval changeover contingency on both main-key and CO-key behavior. This contingency was varied from 5 to 160 sec. The major concern was whether response and time matching would...