Listening and thinking: A pilot study

UNCW Author/Contributor (non-UNCW co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Daniel C. Johnson, Professor (Creator)
The University of North Carolina Wilmington (UNCW )
Web Site:

Abstract: The two purposes of this pilot study were: to classify fifth-grade students’ verbal responses as either Musical Term or Affective/Associative, and to determine if there was a significant difference between subjects’ verbal responses in written and spoken forms. Fifth-grade subjects (n = 40) completed the “Listening and Thinking” measure, consisting of six open-ended questions based on two pairs of instrumental musical examples. Half the subjects responded in written form while the other half responded in oral form. In a Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), a disordinal interaction was found (p = 0.01) such that there were more spoken responses referring to musical terms, and more written responses referring to affective/associative responses. The subjects provided significantly (p = 0.00 1) more musical term than affective/associative responses. There were, however, no significant differences found in the subjects’ responses by musical example, by order of musical examples, or by form of data. For affective and associative responses, written data may prove to be more useful than spoken data, and written responses to music listening appear to be as effective as spoken data. These results have implications for future investigations of cognitive and affective responses to music listening and evaluations of music listening instruction.

Additional Information

Daniel, J. C. (2006, January). Listening and thinking: A pilot study. Visions of Research in Music Education, 7, 1-10. Retrieved from Reproduced with permission from Daniel C. Johnson.
Language: English
Date: 2006
Music--Instruction and study, Music--Instruction and study--Research, Music--Instruction and study--Juvenile, Musical analysis, Music appreciation--Juvenile
Music--Instruction and study
Music--Instruction and study--Research
Music--Instruction and study--Juvenile
Music appreciation--Juvenile
Musical analysis

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