Title IX compliance at two-year colleges : an analysis of perceived barriers and strategies

WCU Author/Contributor (non-WCU co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Cory Scott Causby (Creator)
Western Carolina University (WCU )
Web Site: http://library.wcu.edu/
Meagan Karvonen

Abstract: Although Title IX legislation has been in effect since 1972 and has created unprecedented positive change on intercollegiate athletics, educational institutions have still had difficulty meeting the basic requirements set forth by Title IX and ensuring gender equity in their athletic programs. Additionally, specific research has been largely limited on Title IX compliance issues focused exclusively on two-year institutions and the unique nature of these programs. The purpose of this study was to compare and analyze the perceptions of two-year college athletic administrators regarding efforts surrounding Title IX compliance. The study identified perceived levels of compliance to Title IX within two-year college athletic programs as well as effective strategies for and barriers against Title IX compliance efforts within these programs. Findings were analyzed by respondent and institutional variables identified in previous research as potential influencers of Title IX compliance efforts including athletic administrator gender, availability of scholarships, presence of intercollegiate football, longevity of athletic program, athletic operating budget, and presence of a formal booster organization and/or formal external media agreement for athletic teams. Senior athletic administrators (N = 191, 32% response rate) from the National Junior College Athletic Association and California Community College Athletic Association completed the Two-Year College Title IX Survey. Results demonstrated an overall favorable perception regarding current compliance for respondent institutions (M = 8.1, SD = 2.4 on a 0-12 scale) and a common set of strategies for and barriers against Title IX compliance efforts. Study participants on the whole perceived the inability to attract female student–athletes along with unclear compliance guidelines and a lack of centralized training and support as key issues with meeting Title IX requirements. Similarly, participants perceived the importance of formalized program assessment tools, clearly communicated and understood external compliance standards, and enhanced focus on attracting and retaining female athletes as top strategy options. Institutions without football (M = 8.23, SD = 2.26) reported higher average levels of compliance than those with football (M = 6.85, SD = 2.48, p = .006). No significant differences by institutional variable were shown for compliance strategies, suggesting a common group of potential recommendations irrespective of institutional characteristics. Female athletic administrators indicated significantly higher levels of agreement for barrier scales Leadership (lack of female representation in leadership positions: Mm = 2.05, SDm = 0.67, Mf = 2.57, SDf = 0.85) and Regulations (complexity and generic nature of Title IX regulations: Mm = 2.27, SDm = 0.63, Mf = 2.68, SDf = 0.75) than did male administrators. Additionally, institutions without athletic scholarships demonstrated higher average agreement for barrier scales Unavailability (inability to attract female student-athletes: My = 2.31, SDy = 0.70, Mn = 2.75, SDn = 0.66) and Leadership (My = 2.03, SDy = 0.69, Mn = 2.34, SDn = 0.77) than scholarship–granting schools. From a theoretical perspective, the study provides insight into the unique nature and diversity of athletics programs at two-year institutions to include the framework from which they operate. Practically, study results identified a common set of strategies and barriers associated with Title IX compliance that could be beneficial to the gender equity efforts of two-year college athletic programs, irrespective of institutional profile.

Additional Information

Language: English
Date: 2010
Gender Equity, Title IX, Two Year College
United States. Education Amendments of 1972. Title IX
Sex discrimination in sports -- Law and legislation -- United States
Sex discrimination against women -- Law and legislation -- United States
College sports for women -- United States
Community colleges -- United States
Junior colleges -- United States
Athletic directors -- United States

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