A latent profile analysis of emerging adult men’s perceptions of their fathers’ masculinity expectations

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Brittany Nicole Alligood (Creator)
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
Web Site: http://library.uncg.edu/
Anne Fletcher

Abstract: Across childhood and adolescence, fathers have been shown to play an important role in their sons’ gender socialization. The current study identified latent profiles that provided insight into how distinctive patterns of men’s perceived masculinity expectations from their fathers while they were growing up placed them within distinct groups. Participants were 383 emerging adult men who completed an online survey with questions regarding the masculinity expectations of father figures and participants’ own gender-related beliefs and experiences. A latent profile analysis yielded four distinct groups of men who recalled that their fathers’ expectations were Normative Masculine (n = 160), Hypermasculine (n = 100), Status and Heteronormativity Focused (n = 76), and Open and Affirming (n = 48). Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether demographic factors predicted men’s classification within a given profile. Results indicated that men’s sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, relation to a father figure, and parent education level differentially predicted the likelihood of profile membership. In general, profiles characterized as having greater perceived masculinity expectations from fathers were associated with greater endorsement of men’s traditional gender role attitudes, higher masculine gender role stress, and greater adherence to masculinity in interpersonal relationships. An examination of the moderating effect of father-son relationship quality indicated that both past and current father-son relationship quality moderated the association between profile membership and men’s current gender-related beliefs and experiences. Findings indicate variations between and within fathers’ gender socialization that underscore the diverse ways in which emerging adult men come to understand their own masculine identities.

Additional Information

Language: English
Date: 2023
Emerging adulthood, Father-son relationship, Fathering, Gender role attitudes, Gender socialization, Masculinity
Fathers and sons
Sex role

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