Dietary patterns of lactating women in central North Carolina evaluated using three validated assessment tools.

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Bruna Gutierrez dos Santos (Creator)
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
Web Site:
Maryanne Perrin

Abstract: Background: During lactation, there is an increased maternal need for almost all nutrients. It has been reported that maternal status of some nutrients (i.e. vitamin A, C and DHA) can affect breast milk composition. Data about dietary patterns of lactating women in the United States are scarce and only a small number of studies evaluated micronutrient intake. Objectives: The primary objective of this pilot study is to describe the dietary patterns of lactating women in central North Carolina using established and emerging dietary assessment tools, with a particular focus on fruits and vegetables (F&V). A secondary objective is to explore the relationship between maternal intake of fruits, vegetables, and vitamin A, with breast milk vitamin A and carotenoid concentrations. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 40 lactating women residing in central North Carolina were recruited between July 2018 and April 2019. We collected dietary information using three assessment methods: 24-hour Food Record, REAP dietary screener, and Veggie Meter™, a non-invasive biomarker of F&V intake that has been validated in non-lactating individuals. A single breast milk sample was also collected. Results: Thirty-one participants (78%) were flagged for referral to a Registered Dietitian based on their REAP scores. There was a significant correlation between the Food Record F&V servings and the Veggie Meter™ for subjects who reported that the 24-hour food record was reflective of their usual intake (n=9; p=0.031; R=0.71). The relationship of breast milk beta-carotene and the Veggie Meter™ scores was also statistically significant (n=12; p=0.022; R=0.65). Conclusion: F&V intake in lactating women is often below recommendations. The Veggie Meter™ scores correlated positively with breast milk beta-carotene and F&V intake which can provide an objective method of assessing F&V intake in lactating women in future studies.

Additional Information

Language: English
Date: 2020
Assessment tools, Breast milk, Fruits and vegetables, Lactating women, Vitamin A
Lactation $x Nutritional aspects $z North Carolina
Mothers $a Nutrition $z North Carolina
Breast milk $z North Carolina $x Composition

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